Estimation of serum MDA (Malondialdehyde) in various morphological types and clinical stages of age related (senile cataract)
Keywords:Age related (senile) cataract, Posterior subcapsular (PSC), Serum malondialdehyde, Senile cortical, Senile nuclear
Background: The aim was to estimate the Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the various morphological types and clinical stages of Age Related (Senile) Cataract, a common cause of curable blindness, especially in India.
Methods: This was a study of estimation of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) in 100 patients of Age Related (Senile) cataract with 80 cases of Senile Cortical type (40 cases of Posterior subcapsular and 40 cases of Mature) and 20 cases of Senile Nuclear type (10 cases of early Grades of I and II and 10 cases of Advanced Grades of III and IV) and in 20 cases of normal controls in the age group of 45 to 70 years.
Results: Serum MDA (nmol/ml) values of the Mean with SD were 3.34±0.93 (Range 2.02-4.65) in normal controls, 4.38±1.01 (Range 2.4 - 6.7) in senile cataract, 4.39±1.02 ((Range 2.4-6.7) in Senile Cortical Cataract with 3.82±0.73 (Range 2.4-5.1) in its Posterior Subcapsular stage and 4.96 ± 0.88 (Range 3.3-6.7) in its mature stage and 4.3±0.99 (Range 2.4-6.2) in Senile Nuclear cataract with 3.68±0.66 (Range 2.4-4.7) in its early Grades of I and II and 4.86±0.94 (Range 3.8-6.2) in its Advanced Grades of III and IV.
Conclusions: The present study showed a significant increased concentration of Serum MDA in Senile cataract especially in the advanced later clinical stages or grades of maturity than in the earlier clinical stages or grades of immaturity of senile cortical or nuclear compared to normal controls. And there was no statistically significant difference between the morphological types of Age related (Senile) cataract i.e. Cortical Cataract compared to Nuclear Cataract.
Venkatesh P, Garg S, Verma L, Tewari, Garg S. Antioxidants: Basic Concepts in relation to the eye. Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 2001;16(1):9-14.
Irashad M, Chaudhuri PS. Oxidant: antioxidant System: Role and significance in human body. Ind J Exp Biol. 2002;40:1233-9.
Spector A. Oxidative stress – induced cataract: mechanism of action. FASEB. J. 1995;9:1173-82.
Knekt P, Heliovaara M, Rissanen A, Aromaa A, Aaran R. Serum antioxidant vitamins and risk of cataract. BMJ. 1992;305:1392-4.
Datiles MB, Kinoshita JH. Modification by Oxidative Damage. 4th ed. Duans Ophthalmogy Lippincott - Raven; 1998;73:11394-660.
Chitikara DK. Cataracta Formation Mechanisms. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, editors. Ophthalmology. second ed. Mosby; 2004;4:273-9.
Boulton M, Saxby LA. Age Changes. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, editors. Ophthalmology. Second ed. Mosby;2004;4:261-8.
Taylor A, Jacques P, Chylack LT, Hankinson SE, Khu PM, Rogerset G, et al. Long-term intake of vitamins and carotenoids and odds of early age-related cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities1-4. J Am Clin Nutr. 2002;75:540-9.
Taylor A. Nutritional and environmental influences on risk for cataract. In: Taylor A, editor. Nutritional and environmental influenceson vision. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999:53-93.
Leske MC, Chylack LT, Jr, Wu SY. The Lens Opacities Case Control Study. Risk factors for cataract. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109:244-51.
Blondin J, Taylor A. Measures of leucine aminopeptidase can be used to anticipate UV-induced age-related damage to lens proteins: ascorbate can delay this damage. Mech Ageing Dev. 1987;41:39-46.
Eisenhauer DA, Berger JJ, Peltier CZ, Taylor A. Protease activities in cultured beef lens epithelial cells peak and then decline upon progressive passage. Exp Eye Res. 1988;46:579-90.
Boscia F, Grattagliano I, Vandermiale G. Protein oxidaton and lens opacity in humans. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41:2461-5.
Brennan LA, Kantorow M. Mitochondrial function and redox control in the aging eye: Role of MsrA and other a repair systems in cataract and macular degenerations. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88(2):195-203.
Jacques PF, Chylack Jr. Leo T, McGandy RB, Hartz SC. Antioxidant status in persons with and without senile cataract. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:337-40.
Mohan M, Sperduto RD, Angra SK, Milton RC, Mathur RL, Underwood BA et al. India – US case control study of age related cataracts. Arch.Ophthalmol. 1989;107:670-6.
Garg R, Verma M, Mathur SP, Murthy PS. Blood lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in senile cataract. Ind J Clin Biochem. 1996;11(2):182-6.
Gale CR, Hall NF, Phillips DIW, Martyn CN. Plasma antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids and age related cataract. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1992-8.
Donma O, Yorulmaz, E, Pekel H, Syugul N. Blood and lens lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in normal individuals, senile and diabetic cataractous patients. Curr. Eye Res. 2002;25(1):9-16.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Herrero C, Vaquero M, Millan I. Serum status of carotenoids and tocopherols in patients with age related cataracts: a case control study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6(1):66-8.
Mc Namara M, Augusteyn RC. The effects of hydrogen peroxide on lens proteins-a possible model for nuclear cataract. Exp Eye Res. 1984;38(1):45-56.
Kao CL, Chou CK, Tsai DC, Hsu WM, Liu JH, Wang CS et al. Nitric oxide levels in the aqueous humor in cataract patients. J. Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:507-12.
Ohkava H, Ohishi N, Taki K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979;95:351-8.
Chylack TL, Wolf JK, Singer DM, Leske MC, Bullimore MA, Bailey IL, et al. The lens opacitates Classification System III. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;11:831-6.
Yagi K. Free Radicals in Diagnostic Medicine. Lipid peroxides and related radicals in clinical medicine. In: Armstrong D (ed). New York: Plenum Press;1994:1-15.
Nourmohammadi I, Gohari L, Moddares M. Evaluation of erythrocytes glutathione peroxides, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidants in cataract patients. Arch Iranian Med. 2001;4:123-6.
Kyselova Z, Gajdosk A, Ulcina O, Miholova D, Karasu C, Stefek M. Effect of the piroindole antioxudant stobadine on development of experimental diabetic cataract and on lens protein oxidation in rats: comparation with vitamin E and BHT. Mol Vis. 2005;11:56-65.
Sweeney MH, Truscott RJ. An impediment to glutathione diffusion in older normal lenses a possible precondition for nuclear cataract. Exp Eye Res. 1998;67:587-95.
Pradhan AK, Shukla AK, Reddy MV, Garg N. Assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in age related cataract in a rural population. Indian J Clini Biochemi. 2004 Jan 1;19(1):83.
Cekić S, Zlatanović G, Cvetković T, Petrović B. Oxidative stress in cataractogenesis. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):265-9.
Ateş NA, Yildirim O, Tamer L, Unlü A, Ercan B, Muşlu N et al. Plasma catalase activity and malondialdehyde level in patients with cataract. Eye (Lond). 2004;18(8):785-8
Katta AV, Katkam RV, Geetha H. Lipid peroxidation and the total antioxidant status in the pathogenesis of age related and diabetic cataracts: a study on the lens and blood. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2013 Jun;7(6):978-81.