Aberrant phenotypes in acute myeloid leukemia in India
Keywords:Aberrant phenotypes, Acute myeloid leukemia, Flow cytometry
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease, associated with a high diversity of phenotypes. The study was done with the aim to study about the aberrant phenotypes in acute myeloid leukemia cases and the correlation among the aberrant phenotypes and poor prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 35 cases of newly diagnosed AML according to the selection criteria at Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai for a period of 6 months. Immunophenotyping analysis by flow cytometry was done on fresh bone marrow aspirate or peripheral blood sample by applying Acute Leukemia Panel. The co-expression of different antigen markers on lymphocytes was analyzed.
Results: Aberrant lymphoid markers were seen in 17 (49%) cases. 5 (14%) cases had lymphoid associated antigen expression alone. 3 (8%) cases had asynchronous antigen expression alone. 9 (27%) cases had both asynchronous antigen expression and lymphoid associated antigen expression which is of cases . In total, lymphoid associated antigen expression is seen in 41% of cases and asynchronous antigen expression in 35% of cases. CD3, CD19 (lymphoid associated antigen) and CD34+ CD15+ (asynchronous aberrant phenotype) were the most common equally expressed aberrant phenotypes, each in 7 cases. CD 3 was significantly more common in males (P=0.021) but in general there were no statistically significant association between adverse prognostic factors and aberrant phenotypic AML.
Conclusions: CD19 and CD3 were the most commonly expressed lymphoid associated antigen. Most common asynchronous aberrant phenotype was CD34+CD15+. None of the aberrant phenotypic expression was not associated with poor risk factors in acute myeloid leukemia except for common expression of CD3 in males.
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