A study on outcome of malaria and acute gastroenteritis induced acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis
Keywords:Acute kidney injury, Acute gastroenteritis, Malaria, SOFA score
Background: Acute kidney injury previously known as acute renal failure, is characterized by the sudden impairment of kidney function resulting in the retention of nitrogenous and other waste products normally cleared by the kidneys. Acute Kidney Injury is usually manifested as multiorgan failure syndrome and extracorporeal support may also target fluid overload and heart failure, extracorporeal CO2 removal for combined kidney and lung support, albumin dialysis for liver support. Haemodialysis is more effective than peritoneal dialysis for management of Acute Kidney injury as Peritoneal dialysis is associated with clearance limitation and difficulties with fluid removal and is thus rarely used in adults in developed countries.
Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College and Dr. B.R.A.M. Hospital, Raipur (CG), India, from 2010 to 2012. All patients of both the sexes who were diagnosed as a case of Acute Kidney Injury due to Acute Gastroenteritis and Malaria and who were advised for Hemodialysis were included in the study. In our study, 32 patients of Acute Kidney Injury were included. The criteria used for AKI in the study was RIFLE criteria. Hemodialysis was done in all the cases. Quantitative variables are reported as means±SD and qualitative variables as percentage. Factor(s) determining outcome of AKI were tested by univariate analysis using “fisher’s exact test”. All variables with a P value <0.05 in the univariate analysis were defined statistically significant.
Results: Out of 32 patients of Acute Kidney Injury in our study, 50% (n=16) were of Malaria associated AKI cases and other 50% (n=16) patients were of Acute Gastroenteritis associated AKI in which 87.5% males,12.5% Females were of Malaria and 75% male,25% Female were in AGE associated AKI. Maximum number of patients presented with features of AKI within first 3days of disease onset i.e. 56.25% (n=9) of malaria patients and 68.75% (n=11) of AGE patients. Mortality due to MOD was more common in Malaria patients as compared to AGE patients. AGE associated AKI patients had different level of deranged SOFA score.
Conclusions: Acute kidney injury due to acute gastroenteritis differs from other causes of AKI by frequent occurrence of hypokalemia. Early diagnosis and prompt management can restore the kidney function.
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