Strong linear correlation between parasite density and ABO-blood group among patients with malaria parasite infection
Keywords:Blood group, Correlation, Malaria, Parasite density, Plasmodium falciparum
Background: Analysis of the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infection as it relates to the ABO blood group system could expand our understanding of malaria pathology and further global efforts in addressing the scourge of malaria disease. This study seeks to examine the association between malaria infection and parasite density in relation to the ABO blood group system.
Methods: 298 patients (Age Mean±SD = 28.8±9.16) were selected at random and screened for malaria parasite infection and parasite density quantification using the thick blood film method. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine relationship between parasite density and blood group.
Results: 88 (29.5%) patients tested positive to malaria parasite infection. Patients with blood group O recorded the highest number of positive cases (56.81%) and the least was found among those with blood group AB (3.42%). 93.18% of patients that tested positive were rhesus positive while 6.82% were rhesus negative. 40.90% of patients with mild parasitaemia and 10.23% of patients with moderate parasitaemia were of blood group O+. Pearson correlation coefficient was strong, direct and linear (r = 0.9184; r2 = 0.8434).Conclusions: This study has shown that there is a strong correlation between parasite density per microliter of blood in relation to the ABO-blood group type of individuals diagnosed with malaria parasite infection.
WHO Global Malaria Programme. World Malaria Report. World Health Organization publication. Geneva. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2017/en/2017: 65.
National Population Commission (NPC) (2012). National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) (Nigeria), ICF International: Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey. 2010. Abuja, Nigeria: NPC, NMCP and ICF International. Available at: http//www.population.gov.ng/index.php. accessed on 12 December, 2011.
Mollá S, de La Rubia J, Arriaga F, Fernández MJ, Carpio N, Marty ML. Role of exchange transfusion in patients with severe Falciparum malaria: report of six cases. Haematol. 2001 Jan 1;86(2):208-9.
Rowe JA, Obiero J, Marsh K, Raza A. Positive correlation between rosetting and parasitemia in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates. Am J Trop Med Hygiene. 2002 May 1;66(5):458-60.
Dubey ML, Weingken C, Ganguly NK, Mahajan RC. Comparative evaluation of methods of malaria parasite density determination in blood sample from patients and experimental animals. Indian J Med Res. 1999 Jan 1;109:20.
Bejon P, Berkley A, Mwangi T, Ogada E, Mwangi I. Defining childhood severe falciparum malaria for intervention studies. PLoS Med. 2007;(4):251.
Christine C, Walter D. The ABO blood group system and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Blood. 2002;(110):2250-58.
Miller H, Baruch I, Marsh K, Doumbo K. The pathogenic basis of malaria. Nature. 2002;(415):673-9.
Udo, K. A Comprehensive Geography of West Africa, 1st Ed. Heinemann Educational Books Nigeria Limited, Nigeria. 1978:304.
National Population Commission (NPC). The Nigeria Population Census, Census Priority Tables 2006;1. Available at: http,//www.population.gov.ng/index.php Accessed on 12 December, 2011.
Nafada A, Umeh B, Abdullahi S. Assessment of the Quality of Tertiary Health Care in North-eastern Nigeria. Bor Med J. 2011;(2):23-8.
Cheesebrough M. District Laboratory Practice for Tropical Countries. 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press, UK: 2009:245-251.
Ogbodo SO, Nwagha UI, Okaka AN, Ogenyi SC, Okoko RO, Nwagha TU. Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community of eastern Nigeria; need for combined measures. Nigerian J Physiol Sci. 2009;24(2).
Statistics Software version 2.0. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis. IBM Corporation, New York, USA. 2011.
Prybylski D, Khaliq A, Fox E, Sarwari AR, Strickland GT. Parasite density and malaria morbidity in the Pakistani Punjab. Am J Trop Med Hygiene. 1999 Nov 1;61(5):791-801.
Edington GM, Gillies HM. Protozoan diseases In: Pathology in the Tropics; Edington, GM, Gillies H M., 2nd Ed. Edward Arnolds: London, UK; 2001:197-690.
Ahmed SA, Ibrahim UA, Ibrahim G. Prevalence and clinical significance of malaria parasitemia in blood donors in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2001;22(1):29-34.
Otajevwo FD. ABO blood groups association with malaria parasitaemia among residents in Warri, Delta State. Warri J Sci Tech. 1997;4(1):32-5.
Mbanugo JI, Emenalo S. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2004;25(1):75-80.
Ilozumba PC, Uzozie CR. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and its association with ABO blood group in odoakpu area of Onitsha south local government area, anambra state, Nigeria. Nigerian Ann Natural Sci. 2009;8(2):1-8.
Nkuo-Akenji TK, Wepngong P, Akoachere JF. Effects of ABO/Rh blood groups, G-6-PD enzyme activity and haemoglobin. African J Health Sci. 2004;11(3):93-7.
Anifowoshe AT, Owolodun OA, Akinseye KM, Iyiola OA, Oyeyemi BF. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups in Nigeria: a review. Egyptian J Med Hum Genet. 2017;18(3):205-10.
Boyd M. F. Malariology. W. B. Saunders and Co. London, UK. 1948;568-574.
Wood CS, Harrison GA, Dore C, Weiner JS. Selective feeding of Anopheles gambiae according to ABO blood group status. Nature. 1972;239(5368):165.
Otajevwo FD. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and its association with ABO blood grouping among students of Igbinedion University Okada, Nigeria. Br J Medicine Med Res. 2013 Oct 1;3(4):1164-77.
Pathirana SL, Alles HK, Bandara S, Phone-Kyaw M, Perera MK, Wickremasinghe AR, et al. ABO-blood-group types and protection against severe, Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005 Mar 1;99(2):119-24.