A study on clinical profile of neurological manifestations among HIV infected patients attending a tertiary care hospital of south India
Keywords:AIDS, CD4 count, Cryptococcal meningitis, HIV, Tubercular meningitis
Background: Current statistics show that 36.9 million (31.1-43.9 million) people were living with HIV globally at the end of 2017. 15-73% of people with HIV may develop neurological disorders with sometimes as a presenting illness. The aim of present study is to document the various neurological manifestations and presentations with relation to CD4 counts among the HIV/AIDS cases attending a tertiary care hospital of south India.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted for two years at a tertiary care hospital among confirmed cases of HIV and the neurological manifestations were diagnosed and clinical signs and symptoms were noted. CD4 counts of all the cases were performed by FACS counter and Neuroimaging study was performed on necessary cases.
Results: Total of 125 cases with 69.6% males and 30.4% females were enrolled. Mean age of cases was 35.14±3.8years. 86.4% were positive for HIV-1 type. Headache was the most common ailment (78.4%). Meningeal enhancement observed in 24.5% followed in order by ring enhancing lesion (18.37%), cerebral atrophy and infarction (12.24%). Tubercular meningitis was the commonest type (33.6%). In 12 cases of cryptococcal meningitis the CD4 counts were <100 cells/mm3.
Conclusions: To conclude in present study, secondary neurological manifestations were more common than primary manifestations in present study. Tubercular meningitis being the most common and CD4 counts <100cells/mm3 were associated with cryptococcal meningitis. Cases with CD4 counts less than 100cells/mm3 had poor prognosis.
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