Study of serum magnesium level in type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy

Satya Bhushan Nayyar, Hargurpal Singh Brar, Sahiba Kukreja, Kamaldeep Kaur


Background: Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant cation in the human body and plays a key role in many fundamental biological processes including metabolism and DNA synthesis. Hypomagnesaemia has also been associated with poor glycemic control and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The present study was undertaken in the Department of Medicine in SGRDIMSAR, Amritsar on 100 patients diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as per the latest ADA criteria. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group A with 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with urinary albumin level >30 mg/dl (Study Group). Group B with 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with urine albumin levels <30 mg/dl (Control Group).

Results: Hypomagnesemia was present in 16 patients i.e. 32% in study group and 12 patients i.e. 24% in control group (P=0.034). In study group with hypomagnesemia, 13 patients i.e. 81.25% and in control group with hypomagnesemia, 4 patients i.e. 33.33% have poor glycaemic control (P=0.033). In study group with hypomagnesemia, 14 patients i.e. 87.5% and in control group with hypomagnesemia, 5 patients i.e. 41.67% were found to have diabetic retinopathy (P=0.010).

Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia was directly correlated with hypertension (P=0.004), poor glycaemic control (P=0.033), diabetic retinopathy (P=0.010) and diabetic nephropathy (P=0.034). Hypomagnesemia leads to early microvascular complications as compared to macrovascular complications. Thus, screening of serum magnesium levels in T2DM with albuminuria should alert us to look for hypertension, poor glycaemic control and retinopathy.



Albuminuria, Hypomagnesemia, Magnesium, Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Full Text:



Wolf FI, Trapani V, Simonacci M, Ferré S, Maier JA. Magnesium deficiency and endothelial dysfunction: is oxidative stress involved?. Magnesium Res. 2008;21(1):58-64.

Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K. Magnesium in prevention and therapy. Nutrients. 2015;7(9):8199-226.

Wark PA, Lau R, Norat T, Kampman E. Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(3):622-31.

Saproo N, Singh R. Study of serum magnesium levels in diabetes mellitus and its correlation with complications (retinopathy and HbA1c) a cross-sectional study of one year. Int J Adv Med. 2017;4:263-269.

Rude RK. Magnesium deficiency and diabetes mellitus: causes and effects. Postgrad med. 1992;92(5):217-24.

Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(4):1147-52.

Grafton G, Bunce CM, Sheppard MC, Brown G, Baxter MA. Effect of Mg2+ on Na+-dependent inositol transport: Role for Mg2+ in etiology of diabetic complications. Diabetes. 1992;41(1):35-9.

Pham PC, Pham PM, Pham SV, Miller JM, Pham PT. Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(2):366-73.

American Diabetic Association. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jan; 38(Supplement 1): S8-S16.

Lu J, Gu Y, Guo M, Chen P, Wang H, Yu X. Serum Magnesium concentration is inversely associated with Albuminuria and retinopathy among patient with diabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:1260141.

Hsieh MC, Tien KJ, Perng DS, Hsiao JY, Chang SJ, Liang HT, et al. Diabetic nephropathy and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in Chinese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metab. 2009;58(4):504-9.

Rao PP, Shariff MG. Serum magnesium levels in Type 2 Diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and normoalbuminuria. Int J Sci Stud. 2015;3(4):11-5.

Bashi SA, Alsuwaidan SD, Awada AA, Al-Jumah MA, Al-Arfaj AA, Alem OM. Diabetic neuropathy. Correlation with other diabetic microvascular complications. Neurosci. 2002;7(2):86-91.

Aneesh T, Rao MY. Serum magnesium in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria. IOSR JDMS. 2016;15:30-5.

Hyassat D, Al Sitri E, Batieha A, EL-Khateeb M, Ajlouni K. Prevalence of hypomagnesaemia among obese type 2 diabetic patients attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG). Int J Endocrinol Metabol. 2014;12(3).

Rusu M, Cristea V, Frenţiu T, Măruţoiu C, Rusu LD. Magnesium and selenium in diabetics with peripheral artery disease of the lower limbs. Clujul Med. 2013;86(3):235.