Published: 2019-07-24

Study of serum magnesium level in type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy

Satya Bhushan Nayyar, Hargurpal Singh Brar, Sahiba Kukreja, Kamaldeep Kaur


Background: Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant cation in the human body and plays a key role in many fundamental biological processes including metabolism and DNA synthesis. Hypomagnesaemia has also been associated with poor glycemic control and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The present study was undertaken in the Department of Medicine in SGRDIMSAR, Amritsar on 100 patients diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as per the latest ADA criteria. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group A with 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with urinary albumin level >30 mg/dl (Study Group). Group B with 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with urine albumin levels <30 mg/dl (Control Group).

Results: Hypomagnesemia was present in 16 patients i.e. 32% in study group and 12 patients i.e. 24% in control group (P=0.034). In study group with hypomagnesemia, 13 patients i.e. 81.25% and in control group with hypomagnesemia, 4 patients i.e. 33.33% have poor glycaemic control (P=0.033). In study group with hypomagnesemia, 14 patients i.e. 87.5% and in control group with hypomagnesemia, 5 patients i.e. 41.67% were found to have diabetic retinopathy (P=0.010).

Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia was directly correlated with hypertension (P=0.004), poor glycaemic control (P=0.033), diabetic retinopathy (P=0.010) and diabetic nephropathy (P=0.034). Hypomagnesemia leads to early microvascular complications as compared to macrovascular complications. Thus, screening of serum magnesium levels in T2DM with albuminuria should alert us to look for hypertension, poor glycaemic control and retinopathy.



Albuminuria, Hypomagnesemia, Magnesium, Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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