Prevalence of co-morbidities among adult patients presented for open heart surgery and the implication on convalescence period
Keywords:Cardiac surgery, Cardiopulmonary bypass, Comorbidities, Convalescence, Hospitalization time, Intensive care unit
Background: Improvements in perioperative medical care, anesthetic management, surgical and myocardial protection techniques made cardiac surgery feasible in the high risk surgical patients. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of comorbidities in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery and to evaluate their implications on recovery profile.
Methods: This randomized retrospective observational study of 100 adult patients presented for heart surgery for different pathologies took place at Queen Alia heart Institute in the period of time between February 2013 and June 2014. Patients' data was collected in forms, tabulated and retrospectively analyzed. Patients' demographics, co-morbidities and type of surgery were recorded. Risk stratification models (ASA-American Society of Anesthesiology and EUROSCORE 2- European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation) were used. Time of extubation, ICU discharge and hospital discharge was recorded with each patient.
Results: Age of patients ranged from 18 to 77 years (mean±SD: 58±12). 83% of patients were male and 17% were female. 80 patients were presented for CABG and 20 patients for heart valve(s) surgery. BMI (body mass index, mean±SD) was 28.9±4.6 kg/m². The prevalence of smoking was 56% (6 times higher among males (64%), in comparison to females (12%). Hypertension was prevalent in 72% of patients; diabetes was present in 53%, respiratory disease in 30%, previous myocardial infarction in 23%, 37% of patients had left ventricular impairment, renal impairment in 6%, renal failure in 2% and previous stroke in 2%. EUROSCORE values ranged between 0.5 to 5.3 % (mean 1.4%). ASA grades ranged from 2 to 4 (85% of patients were grade 3). 5% of surgeries were emergent. Average operative time was 248±47 minutes (mean±SD). 30% of patients needed inotropic support and 6% needed intra-aortic balloon. Mean time in the intensive care was 43.2±28.8 hours (mean±SD).
Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of co-morbidities in patients presented for cardiac surgery. Most common associated diseases were hypertension, obesity, smoking, previous myocardial infarction and diabetes; which are all well known risk factors of ischemic heart disease. Preoperative risk scoring is of paramount importance.
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