Microalbuminuria among obese and non-obese individuals: a case control study

G. Karthikeyan, M. Nataraj


Background: Microalbuminuria among obesity cases reflects specific glomerular damage or is the marker of generalized endothelial cell dysfunction is still debatable. Thus, this study aimed to assess the presence of microalbuminuria among obese persons and non-obese individuals, who were euglycemic and normotensive.

Methods: A case control study was conducted among patients attending outpatient department of general medicine in Govt Thiruvarur Medical College, Thiruvarur, for their illnesses from June 2017 to December 2017. A total of hundred participants with fifty obese cases and fifty non obese controls were included in this study. Detailed history and examination were done by the principal investigator and the same was documented in a proforma. Data entry was done using Microsoft excel and the statistical analysis includes odds ratio were calculated using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.

Results: Among the study participants, 32% and 4% had microalbuminuria in obese and non-obese group, respectively. Also, obese participants were 11.29 times at higher chances of having microalbuminuria when compared to the non-obese patients with significant p value (p=0.002).

Conclusions: Microalbuminuria can be used to predict the risk of complications in obese subjects in order to bring down the overall morbidity and mortality related to renal function.


Euglycemic, Microalbuminuria, Non-obese, Normotensive, Obese

Full Text:



Berctold P, Sims EAH. Horton ES, Berger M. Obesity and hypertension: epidemiology. mechanisms, treatment. Biomed Pharmacother 1983;37:251-8.

Drenick EJ, Bale GS, Seltzer F, Johnson DG. Excessive mortality and causes of death in morbidly obese men. JAMA. 1980;243:443-5.

Warnke RA, Kempson RL. The nephrotic syndrome in massive obesity. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1978;102:431-38.

Weisinger JR, Kempson RL, Eldridge FL. The nephrotic syndrome: A complication of massive obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1974;81:440-7.

Kasiske BL, Napier J. Glomerular sclerosis in patients with massive obesity. Am J Nephrol. 1985;5:45-0

Brenner BM. Hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury and the progressive nature of kidney disease. Kidney Int. 1983;23:647-55.

Eshoj O, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Larsen ML, Mogensen EF. Comparison of overnight, morning and 24-hour urine collections in the assessment of diabetic microalbuminuria. Diab Med. 1987;4:531-3.

Sharma K. The link between obesity and albuminuria: adiponectin and podocyte dysfunction. Kid Int. 2009;76(2):145-8.

Morales E, Valero M, León M, Hernández E, Praga M. Beneficial effects of weight loss in overweight patients with chronic proteinuric nephropathies. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41(2):319-27.

De Boer IH, Sibley SD, Kestenbaum B, Sampson JN, Young B, Cleary PA, et al. Central obesity, incident microalbuminuria, and change in creatinine clearance in the epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study. J Am Society Nephrol. 2007;18(1):235-43.

Rosenbaum P, Gimeno SG, Sanudo A, Franco LJ, Ferreira SR, Japanese-Brazilian Diabetes Study Group. Independent impact of glycemia and blood pressure in albuminuria on high-risk subjects for metabolic syndrome. Clin Nephrol. 2004;61:369-76.

Bosma RJ, van der Heide JJ, Oosterop EJ, de Jong PE, Navis G. Body mass index is associated with altered renal hemodynamics in non-obese healthy subjects. Kidney Int. 2004;65:259-65.

De Jong PE, Verhave JC, Pinto-Sietsma SJ, Hillege HL. Obesity and target organ damage: the kidney. Int J Obesity Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:S21-4.

Martinez MA, Moreno A, Aguirre de Carcer A, Cabrera R, Rocha R, Torre A, et al., MAPA- Madrid Working Group. Frequency and determinants of microalbuminuria in mild hypertension: a primary-care-based study. J Hypertens. 2001;19:319-26.

Jensen JS, Borch-Johnsen K, Jensen G, Feldt-Rasmussen B. Atherosclerotic risk factors are increased in clinically healthy subjects with microalbuminuria. Atheroscl. 1995;112(2):245-52.

Cirillo M, Senigalliesi L, Laurenzi M, Alfieri R, Stamler J, Stamler R, et al. Microalbuminuria in nondiabetic adults: relation of blood pressure, body mass index, plasma cholesterol levels, and smoking: The Gubbio Population Study. Arch Int Med. 1998;158(17):1933-9.

Valensi P, Assayag M, Busby M, Parie`s J, Lormeau B, Attali J-R. Microalbuminuria in obese patients with or without hypertension. Int J Obes. 1996;20:574-9.

Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical yearbook of Norway. Oslo: Kongsvinger. 1997;03:97-142. Accessed at: Accessed 11 March 2019.

Midthjell K, Krüger O, Holmen J, Tverdal A, Claudi T, Bjørndal A, Magnus P. Rapid changes in the prevalence of obesity and known diabetes in an adult Norwegian population. Diab Care. 1999;22:1813-20.

Collins VR, Dowse GK, Finch CF. Zixnmet PZ, Linnane AW. Prevalence and risk factors for micro- and inacroalbuminuria in diabetic subjects and entire population of Nauru. Diab. 1989;38:1602-10.

Damsgaard EM, Frøland A, Jørgensen OD, Mogensen CE. Microalbuminuria as predictor of increased mortality in elderly people. BMJ. 1990;300(6720):297-300.

Mattock MB, Keen H, Viberti CG, El-Gohari MR, Murrells TJ, Scott GS, et al. Coronary heart disease and urinary albumin excretion rate in type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetic patients. Diab. 1988;31:82-7.

Romundstad S, Holmen J, Hallan H, Kvenild K, Krüger, Midthjell K. Microalbuminuria, cardiovascular disease and risk factors in a nondiabetic/nonhypertensive population. The Nord‐Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, 1995–97), Norway. J Int Med. 2002;252(2):164-72.

Løkkegaard N, Haupter I, Kristensen TB. Microalbuminuria in obesity. Scandinavian J Urol Nephrol. 1992;26(3):275-8.

Prebble WE. Obesity: Observation on one thousand cases. Boston Med Surg J. 1923;188: 617-21.

Goldszer R, Irvine J, Lazarus JM, Gottlieb M, Solomon H. Renal findings in obese humans. Kidney Int. 1984;24:165.