Lipid profile and alcoholism
Keywords:Alcohol, Heavy alcoholics, Lipid profile, Moderate alcoholics
Background: Alcoholism is a major threat to public health in both developed and developing countries. Alcohol has many effects on lipid profile, including inducing de novo fatty acid synthesis and inhibiting fatty acid oxidation in liver. Aim of this study was to study the effect of alcohol consumption on serum lipid profile in alcoholics and to compare with those of non-alcoholic controls.
Methods: 100 cases and 100 age and sex matched controls were selected. These subjects were classified into, 1. Moderate alcoholics: Consuming ≤210 g per week 2. Heavy alcoholics: Consuming >210 g per week. Blood was taken in fasting state and lipids were estimated.
Results: Among 200 subjects, 94% were male. 58.5% of the male and 83.3% of the female were heavy drinkers. Maximum number of alcoholics were seen in the age group of 41-50 years. The height correlated well with both control and study group. The moderate dose alcoholics had a higher weight when compared to control group and heavy dose alcoholics. The heavy dose alcoholics had a lower BMI when compared with the control group and moderate dose alcoholics. Heavy dose alcohol consumption was associated with a higher increase in triglyceride level. The total cholesterol level was significantly higher in the heavy dose alcoholics when compared with the control group. The HDL level was highest in the moderate dose alcoholics. The LDL level was highest in heavy dose alcoholics whereas, the moderate dose alcoholics had a lesser LDL level when compared with the control group. The VLDL level steadily increased with alcohol consumption.
Conclusions: Patients with heavy alcohol consumption had significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL. The moderate alcohol consumers had significantly increased HDL and decreased LDL. These protective effects declined after heavy alcohol consumption.
Schuckit MA. Chapter 392. Alcohol and alcoholism. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 18th Ed. Vol 2. New York: McGraw Hill, Health Professions Division; 2012:3546-3552.
Kishore J. Chapter 21. National mental health program. In: Kishore J, author. J Kishore’s National Health Programs of India. 10th Ed. New Delhi: Century Publications; 2012:483-502.
Semenkovich CF, Goldberg AC, Goldberg IJ. Chapter 137. Disorders of lipid metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronberg HM, editors. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th Ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2011:1633-1674.
Rader DJ, Hobbs HH. Chapter 356. Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 18th Ed. New York: McGraw Hill, Health Professions Division; 2012:3145-3161.
Vasisht S, Pant MC, Srivastava LM. The effect of alcohol on serum lipids and lipoproteins in male drinkers. Indian J Med Res. 1992;96:333-7.
Glueck CJ, Hogg E, Allen C, Gartside PS. Effects of alcohol ingestion on lipids and lipoproteins in normal men: Isocaloric metabolic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33(11):2287-93.
Camargo CAJ, Williams PT, Vranizam KM, Albers JJ, Wood PD. The effect of moderate alcohol intake on serum apolipoproteins A-I and A-II: A controlled study. JAMA. 1985;253(19):2854-7.
Cowie M. Alcohol and cardiac risk. J Applied Med. 1995;21:443-5.
Suh I, Shaten BJ, Cutler JA, Kuller LH. Alcohol use and mortality from coronary heart disease: The role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(11):881-7.
Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, Godfried SL, Sesso HD, Glynn RJ, Breslow JL, et al. Type of alcoholic beverage and risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1999;83(1):52-7.
Vaswani M, Rao RV. Biochemical measures in the diagnosis of alcohol dependence using discriminant analysis. Indian J Med Sci. 2005;59(10):423-30.
Vaswani M, Hemraj P, Desai NG, Tripathi BM. Lipid profile in alcohol dependence. Indian J Psychiatry. 1997;39(1):24-8.
Drago S, Satish M, Maulick ND, Nabar ST, Kaneria M. Study of lipid profile in chronic alcoholics. The Indian Practitioner. 2002;55(1):5-8.
Goldberg R J, Burchfiel CM, Reed DM, Wergowske G, Chiu D. A prospective study of the health effects of alcohol consumption in middle-aged and elderly men. The Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation. 1994;89(2):651-9.
Sheethal KC, Swetha S, Shanthakumari, Hamsa L, Shwetha, Hemalatha V. A comparative study of lipid profile in chronic alcoholics and non alcoholics in a tertiary care hospital Bangalore, South India. Int J Contempo Med. 2013;1(2):102-6.