Published: 2019-11-25

Rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids: a hospital based study

Irfan Nazir Mir, Tajamul Rashid, Malik Suhail, Irshad Ahmad Kumar


Background: Hemorrhoids are symptomatic anal cushions containing arteriovenous anastomosis. Patient with haemorrhoids can present as bleeding per rectum, something (mass) coming out per rectum, perianal itching, Anaemia due to occult blood loss. Various modalities of treatment have been developed to treat symptomatic haemorrhoids. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of rubber band ligation in the management of haemorrhoids.

Methods: This study was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Srinagar from June 2015 to June 2018. Patients at any age with first, second- or third-degree internal haemorrhoids were included in the study. Patients with fourth degree, complicated haemorrhoids, previous anorectal surgery or anorectal pathology, and chronic liver disease were excluded. A total of 212 patients were included in the study. Rubber band ligation was done as an OPD procedure. The patients were followed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 3-month, 6 month and 1 year after the procedure.

Results: In this study, out of 212 patients, 154(72.6%) were males and 58(27.4%) females. The mean age of this study was 38.7 yr. (Range 17-73 yr.). Patients presented with the complaints of bleeding (184, 86.8%), prolapse (114, 53.7%), constipation (116, 54.7%), priuritis ani (36, 17.0%), pain (12, 5.6%). Band ligation was successful in 188(88.8%) patients, 169(79.7%) patients were cured and in 19(8.9%) improvement was obtained. Various complications occurred after band ligation including vasovagal syncope (2, 0.9%), bleeding per anum (6, 2.8%), pain (12, 5.6%), fissure in ano (1, 0.5%). Recurrence after one year was seen in 9(4.2%) patients.

Conclusions: Author concluded in this study that RBL is an effective outpatient treatment for grade II and III internal haemorrhoids without much complications.


Bleeding per anum, Dentate line, Haemorrhoids, Outpatient department, Pruritis ani, Rubber band ligation

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