Published: 2019-12-23

Comparative study of seasonal variability in peak expiratory flow rate amongst school children in rural and urban areas

Bharat Bhushan, Leena Chopra, Surinder P. Singh, Shivam Bhalla, Heena Bharti


Background: Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) is a value test for lung function and can be conveniently measured by using relatively inexpensive and portable Peak Flow Meter, identifying and assessing the degree of airflow limitation of individuals. While PEFR is obviously related to factors like age, weight, height, race, gender, it may also be additionally affected by seasons and climate. The purpose of study being to observe seasonal variation in PEFR amongst school going children and to observe peak expiratory flow rate in school going children in urban and rural areas.

Methods: This prospective and comparative study was carried out on total 600 children; with 300 each from rural and urban schools, of age group 10-14 years, both sexes. Peak expiratory flow meter was used for the measurements in the seasons of summer (April to June) and winter (December to February) of the year. The results thus obtained were compiled and analysed.

Results: The mean PEFR value (Litres/min) during summers in the rural children was 243.50(S.D.=16.050) while during winters was 253.63(S.D.=16.934), highly significant (p<0.001);  mean PEFR summers in the urban  children was 241.50(S.D.=20.530)and during winters  was 249.93(S.D.=21.685), again highly significant (p<0.001).

In both rural and urban groups PEFR values increased with increase in height and weight of the children which was found to be highly significant (p<0.001). Girls representation proportion in rural vs urban schools being 49% vs 45%; whereas boys being 51% vs 55% respectively.

Conclusions: Peak expiratory flow rate decreased during summer season of the year in both rural and urban school attending children. In both the groups PEFR values had a direct correlation with height and weight of the children. Rural schools showed more girl student representation than their urban counterparts indicating more awareness for girl child education amongst rural population.


Airflow limitation, Children, Peak expiratory flow rate, Rural, Seasonal variability, Urban

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