Awareness regarding self care among diabetics in urban slum of Kolkata: a community-based, cross-sectional study


  • Samir Kumar Ray Department of Community Medicine, Murshidabad Medical College, Berhampore, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India
  • Ujjwal Pattnayak Department of Community Medicine, KPC Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  • Kishore P. Madhwani Occupational Health Consultant, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • Jitendra Kumar Singh Sociologist, Kolkata, West Bengal, India



Awareness, Community based diabetics, Self-care, Urban slum


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes have higher rates of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Many of these complications can be prevented with appropriate medical care that often requires significant alterations in lifestyle and strict adherence to self-care tasks to obtain good control of disease. Awareness regarding the complications of this disease will play a vital role in its prevention and control. While lack of adherence to the treatment and self-care leads to poor glycemic control, thereby, increasing hazardous complications. Objective of the study was the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of diabetic patients regarding the disease and its complications, and to estimate the knowledge and adherence to self-care practices concerned with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The study was conducted in Tangra an urban slum of Kolkata from July 2018 to December 2018. A house to house survey was conducted to identify the known diabetics in the community and data of 362 patients were collected.

Results: A total of 362 diabetic patients consented and participated in the study of whom 191(52.76%) were male and 171(42.74%) female. Majority of the respondents (26.52%) between the age of 50-59 years, 140(38.67%) belonged to upper middle class. Though 332(91.71%) respondents were aware regarding diet control but only 170(46.96%) were actually practicing the recommended diet schedules. Knowledge of the respondents regarding eye, foot, skin and dental care was very low, only 67(18.51%), 102(28.28%), 62(17.13%) and 46(12.71%) respondents were aware respectively and practices were still lower.

Conclusions: Overall the level of self-care activities among diabetic patients in our study was quite low.  Government policies should help in creating guidelines on comprehensive diabetes management within the primary health care setting including availability of medicines and diagnostic services and creating public awareness.


Unwin N, Whiting D, Gan D, Jacqmain O, Ghyoot G, editors. IDF diabetes atlas. Int Diab Federation; 2009.

Gale J. India’s diabetes epidemic cuts down millions who escape poverty. Bloomberg. Retrieved. 2012;8.

Misra P, Upadhyay RP, Misra A, Anand K. A review of the epidemiology of diabetes in rural India. Diab Res Clin Pract. 2011;92(3):303-11.

Raithatha SJ, Shankar SU, Dinesh K. Self-care practices among diabetic patients in Anand district of Gujarat. ISRN Family Med. 2014;11;2014.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2013. Diab care. 2013;36(1):11-66.

People-centered health care. 2007.technical papers: International Symposium on the People centered Health Care: reorienting health systems in the 21st century, the Tokyo International Forum, 25 November 2007.

Raj CP, Angadi MM. Hospital-based KAP study on diabetes in Bijapur, Karnataka. Indian J Med Spe. 2010;1(2):80-3.

Shah VN, Kamdar PK, Shah N. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practice of type 2 diabetes among patients of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. Int J Diab Develop Countr. 2009;29(3):118.

Muninarayana C, Balachandra G, Hiremath SG, Iyengar K, Anil NS. Prevalence and awareness regarding diabetes mellitus in rural Tamaka, Kolar. Intern J Diab Develop Countr. 2010;30(1):18.

Patil PS, Dixit UR, Hiralal BD. Study of diabetes in Dharwad-an urban area in India. Ind J Sci Technol. 2011;4(11):1481-3.

Hawal NP, Shivaswamy MS, Kambar S, Patil S, Hiremath MB. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding self-care practices among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients residing in an urban area of South India. Int Multidiscipl Res J. 2012;2(12).

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998 Sep 12;352(9131):837-53.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diab Care. 2003;26:33-50.

Hassan TA. The centrality of the patient role in the management of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J. 1998;19(4):370-5.

Ruggiero L, Glasgow R, Dryfoos JM, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO, Orleans CT, et al. Diabetes self-management: self-reported recommendations and patterns in a large population. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):568-76.

Alberti KG, Gries FA, Jervell J, Krans HM, European NIDDM Policy Group. A Desktop Guide for the Management of Non‐insulin‐dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): An Update. Diab Med. 1994;11(9):899-909.

Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Darbinian JA, D’Agostino Jr RB, Ferrara A, Liu J, et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and glycemic control: the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Diabetes registry∗. Am J Med. 2001;111(1):1-9.

Martin S, Schneider B, Heinemann L, Lodwig V, Kurth HJ, Kolb H, et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes and long-term outcome: an epidemiological cohort study. Diabetol. 2006;49(2):271-8.

El-Hazmi MA, Al-Swailem A, Warsy AS, Al-Sudairy F, Sulaimani R, Al-Swailem A, et al. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the population of Riyadh. Annal Saudi Med. 1995 Nov 1;15(6):598-601.

Strowig S. Patient education: a model for autonomous decision-making and deliberate action in diabetes self-management. Med Clin North Am. 1982;66(6):1293-307.

American Diabetes Association. Clinical practice recommendations 2000. Diab Care. 2000;23:1-116.

VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for The Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care. Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense. Version 5.0 - Washington, DC;2017:12-13.

Brown SA. Studies of educational interventions and outcomes in diabetic adults: a meta-analysis revisited. Patient education and counselling. 1990;16(3):189-215.

Padgett D, Mumford E, Hynes M, Carter R. Meta-analysis of the effects of educational and psychosocial interventions on management of diabetes mellitus. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;41(10):1007-30.






Original Research Articles