Published: 2020-03-21

Study on haematological abnormalities in various stages of chronic kidney disease: stage 3-5

Pattu Swarnalatha, T. Vinotha


Background: Chronic kidney disease is one of the major health problems worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. CKD is diagnosed on the basis of the presence of markers of kidney damage and kidney function. Aim of the study to assess the prevalence of hematological abnormalities in CKD (stage 3-5) and to assess their correlation among various etiologies of CKD (diabetes, chronic glomerulonephritis, hypertension.

Methods: The study was done in 150 cases diagnosed as CKD in the Department of Nephrology, IMCU, and in the medical ward at Tirunelveli Medical College Hospital. The diagnosis was based on an estimated GFR level <60ml/mt/1.73M2. Total count, differential count, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC count, platelet count, and peripheral smear examination, coagulation profile were done on all the patients and results were compared and correlated with each other.

Results: In 150 patients, 90 males and 60 females were included. Among 90 males 43 were in stage 3 CKD, 11 in stage 4, 36 in stage 5. Among 60 females 7 were in stage 3, 39 in stage four, 14 were in stage 5. 63 patients had both hypertension and diabetes, 30 patients had only diabetes. There was a decrease in RBC, Total count platelet value with respect to increase in stages of CKD. There was a prolongation in BT, CT, PT, APTT and INR value in respect to increase in stages of CKD.

Conclusions: Chronic kidney disease patients have lower haematological indices and the degree of changes depends on the severity of kidney disease.


Anemia, Coagulation, Chronic kidney disease, Haematology

Full Text:



National Kidney Foundation- DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Chronic Kidney Disease. Executive summary. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39(2)suppl 1:S1- S266.

Cameron JS. European Best Practice Guidelines for the management of anemia in patients with CRF. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14 (suppl 5):

Chandra M, Miller ME, Garcia JF, Mossey RT, McVicar M. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin levels in patients with polycystic kidney disease as compared with other haemodialysis patients. Nephron. 1985;39(1):26-2.

Ruiz P, Gomez F, Schreiber AD. Impaired function of macrophage Fcγ receptors in end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med. 1990;322(11):717-22.

Minno GD, Martinez J, McKean ML, Rosa JDL, Burke JF, Murphy S. Platelet dysfunction in uremia- multifaceted defect partially corrected by dialysis. Am J Med. 1985;79:552-9.

Coresh J, Astor BC, Greene T, Eknoyan G, Levey AS. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: third national health and nutrition examination survey. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41(1):1-12

Viswanathan V. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy: A diabetologist’s perspective. Ind J Nephrol. 2004;14:157-62.

National Kidney Foundation- DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for the treatment of anemia of chronic renal failure. Introduction. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997 Oct;30(4 Suppl 3):S192-240.

Callen IR, Limarzi LR. Blood and bone marrow studies in renal disease. Am J Clin Pathol. 1950;20:3-23.

Wieslander AP, Nordin MK, Kjellstrand PT, Boberg UC. Toxicity of peritoneal dialysis fluids on cultured fibroblasts, L-929. Kidney Inter. 1991 Jul 1;40(1):77-9.