A prospective study of correlation between smoking and serum calcium in newly diagnosed essential hypertension
Keywords:Calcium, Hypertension, Parathyroid hormone, Smoking
Background: Smoking significantly reduces the vitamin D and serum parathyroid hormone levels. But no significant difference was observed in serum calcium levels in previous studies. Some studies showed significantly low serum calcium levels in essential hypertension. There are limited international and local studies about the effect of cigarette smoking on the levels of serum calcium in relation to hypertension. Our study aims to find correlation between smoking and serum calcium in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive patients.
Methods: Total 70 cases of newly diagnosed essential hypertension who attended the outpatient department at the government general hospital were included in this study based on inclusion criteria. Base line data including age, gender, risk factors were obtained. Blood biochemistry including serum calcium levels were obtained at the time of diagnosis and results were analysed.
Results: Among 70 cases of essential hypertension there were 24 smokers and 46 nonsmokers. Serum calcium was found low in 37 cases of essential hypertension. Out of 37, 12 were smokers and 25 were nonsmokers, p value is 0.6981 and it is not significant.
Conclusions: Smoking is a major health hazard, with detrimental effects on many organs. In our study serum calcium was significantly less among Hypertensives and correlated inversely with blood pressure. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium among smokers and nonsmokers. Measuring the level of parathyroid hormone in cigarette smokers, may help to clarify the finding in present study.
Grobbee, D.E., I.M.S. van Hooft, and A. Hofman. Calcium Metabolism and familial Risk of Hypertension. Sem Nephrol. 1995;15(6):512- 18 .
Sudhakar K, Sujatha M, Babu SR, Padmavathi P, Reddy PP. Serum calcium levels in patients with essential hypertension and their first degree relatives. Ind J Clini Biochem. 2004;19(1):21-3.
McCarron DA. Calcium. Symposium Notes: Non pharmacologic Management of Hypertension (National Kidney Foundation). 1994:34-8.
Morris CD, Reusser ME. Calcium Intake and Blood Pressure: Epidemiology Revisited. Sem Nephrol. 1995;15(6):490-5.
James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014 Feb 5;311(5):507-20.
Anchala R, Kannuri NK, Pant H, Khan H, Franco OH, Di Angelantonio E, et al. Hypertension in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. J Hypertension. 2014 Jun;32(6):1170-7.
Hugo K, Jozer G. Calcium and blood pressure. Lancet. 1982:813-5.
Blaustein MP. How does sodium cause hypertension? An hypothesis. In: Zumkley H, Losse H (eds) Intracellular electrolytes and arterial hypertension. Thieme: Stuttgart; 1980:151–157.
Laragh JH, Brenner BM. Hypertension pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management. 2nd Edition. New York: Raven Press, Ltd.; 1995:1169-1189.
Oshima T, Young EW. Systemic and Cellular Calcium Metabolism and Hypertension. Sem Nephrol. 1995 Nov;15(6):496-503.
Jorde R, Saleh F, Figenschau Y, Kamycheva E, Haug E, Sundsfjord J. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in smokers and non-smokers. The fifth Tromsø study. Europ J Endocrinol. 2005 Jan 1;152(1):39-45.