Risk factors including prothrombotic work up in young ischemic stroke Indian patients


  • Amit Sreen Department of Medicine and Neurology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi, India
  • Prafull Sharma Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi, India
  • Vivek Guleria Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi, India
  • Niket Verma Department of General Medicine, Army College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India




Brain Ischemia, Protein C, Risk Factors, Stroke


Background: Stroke in young poses a major health problem. Various Indian studies have shown the incidence of stroke to be 10-15%. Cerebral venous thrombosis and rheumatic heart disease are the leading causes of stroke in the young in India. Thrombophilic factors have been implicated in 4-8% of the young strokes worldwide. Protein C deficiency is the most common thrombophilia marker followed by a deficiency of protein S, Factor V Leiden mutation, and antithrombin (AT) deficiency. Aims and objectives was the study of stroke in young is important for various reasons. The etiology and risk factors are more diverse and different as compared to the elderly. Therefore, these may indicate separate therapeutic approaches. The aim is to study the profile of ischemic stroke cases among the young.

Methods: The study was carried out at a tertiary care defence hospital between December 2018 to December 2019. All cases of fresh ischemic stroke who were more than 15 and less than 45 years of age were included. Following clinical evaluation, patients underwent complete haemogram, blood sugar levels, lipid profile and other metabolic parameters. All patients were subjected to chest radiography, 12 lead ECG, and 2D echocardiography, Non-contrast CT head and MRI brain. Prothrombotic work up was also done.

Results: A total of 41 patients (12.69%) presented with ischemic stroke before 45 years of age. Out of these 10 (24%) were females and 31 (76%) were male. None of the women smoked or consumed alcohol. Among the males, 19 (47%) smoked more than 10 cigarettes or bidis per day and 9 (22%) were moderate-to-heavy drinkers of alcohol. Hypertension was present in 7 (18%) and diabetes mellitus in 3 (7%) patients. Serum cholesterol was elevated in 7 (18%) patients and triglycerides in 17 (42%). Protein S deficiency was found in 28.8% patients, while protein C deficiency was detected in 21% patients and antithrombin III deficiency in 12% patients.

Conclusions: Although traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and smoking, are associated with stroke in both elderly and young, this study shows that other modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption were also prevalent. The most common etiological cause was found to be venous infarction followed by cardio embolic cause. Deficiency of Protein S was the most common prothrombotic defect followed by deficiency of Protein C.


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