Published: 2020-03-21

Clinical profile of falciparum, vivax and mixed infections of malaria, from a tertiary care hospital, Coastal Andhra, India

Usham Gangaram, Giri Raju Sarikonda, Bhimasen Soren, Venkatakrishnan .


Background: Malaria is a major health problem in many parts of India and some parts of Andhra Pradesh is one of the endemic areas for malaria. The objective was to study clinical profile and outcome of malaria in both species and mixed infection.

Methods: Present study was carried out on 100 patients admitted during the period of  November 2016 - October 2018 in Narayana medical college and hospital, Nellore. Malaria confirmed by Peripheral thick and thin smear or Antigen Assay underwent detailed clinical history and physical examination. This was followed by monitoring the outcome of the patients with respect to morbidity and mortality.

Results: Out Of the 100 patients 58 patients were from rural background, males were predominant, most common age group was 20-30 (34%) followed by 31-40 (31%). Out of 100 patients, 54 patients were  falciparum,44 patients had vivax  and two had mixed infection. All of the patients had fever followed by chills and rigors (75%), nausea and vomiting (59%), easy fatiguability (28%), pain abdomen (17), cough (14%) in both infections, altered sensorium was seen in only falciparum (20.3%). On clinical examination,70% of the patients had pallor, splenomegaly in 46%, icterus (23%), hepatomegaly (14%) and pedal edema in12 patients were observed. All 0f the patients were treated with appropriate antimalarial drugs for appropriate duration, and all were recovered without any mortality.

Conclusions:Malaria is very common disease in our country especially in South India, which is one of the endemic areas. Severe malaria usually caused by the falciparum more than vivax, early diagnosis and treatment decreases the mortality and morbidity.



Clinical profile, Coastal Andhra, Falciparum, Mixed, Vivax

Full Text:



Park K. Park textbook of preventive and social medicine. 24th edition. India: Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2015:185-199.

Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 20th edition. McGraw Hill Professional; 2018 Feb 6.

World health organisation. World malaria report. Available at: http:/ /world malaria report/en/world malaria report 2018. Accessed 19 November 2018.

WHO 2016 fact sheet on world malaria report. 2016. Available at: Accessed 13 December 2016.

Govt of India 2016 annual report 2015-16. Available at: Accessed 15 October 2016.

Operational manual for malaria elimination in India. New Delhi: Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Government of India 2016. Available at:

Yadav RK, Kumar S. To study hematological profile in malaria patients. Inter J Adv Med. 2017 May;4(3):707-12.

Surve KM, Kulkarni AS, Rathod SG, Bindu RS. Study of haematological parameters in malaria. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017 Jun;5(6):2552-57.

Khuraiya P, Sharma SS, Thakur AS, Pandey VP, Verma S. The study of clinical, biochemical and hematological profile in malaria patients. Int J Adv Med. 2016 Apr;3(2):209-17.

Patel GI, Muley P, Vadher A, Suthar PP, Shah GV, Patel AB. A comparative study of clinical, biochemical and hematological profiles in smear positive malaria patients: at a tertiary care center located in rural part of Gujarat, India. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015 Oct;3:2561-6.

Kalavathi GP, Kumar S. Clinical, hematological and biochemical profile of malaria cases. Inter J Med Res.2016;1(4):50-5.

Vaidya MS, Kawale JB, Maheshkar PR, Kamble AN. A comparative study of hematological profile on presentation in confirmed cases of malaria, dengue and leptospirosis. Inter J Res Med Sci. 2018 Feb;6(2):472-80.

Jain A, Kaushik R, Kaushik RM. Malarial hepatopathy: clinical profile and association with other malarial complications. Acta Tropica. 2016 Jul 1;159:95-105.

Rathod SN, Chavan A, Sharma S, Rathod T, Khan N, Bavdhankar K. Changing clinical profile of malaria at a tertiary care hospital. Int J Adv Med. 2018 May;5:510-3.

Melhotra B. Haematological manifestation of Malaria. Ind J Haematol Blood Transfusion. 1997:15-40.

Murthy. Malarial hepatitis – Does such a Clinical entity exist. J assoc physic India. 47(1):27.

Nand. Renal dysfunction in Malaria. J Assoc physic India. 47(1):103.

Newton CR, Hien TT, White N. Cerebral malaria. J Neurol, Neurosurg Psychiatr. 2000;69(4):433-41.

Tobón-Castaño A, Mesa-Echeverry E, Miranda-Arboleda AF. Leukogram profile and clinical status in vivax and falciparum malaria patients from Colombia. J Tropic Med. 2015;2015.

Nadkar MY, Huchche AM, Singh R, Pazare AR. Clinical Profile of Severe Plasmodium vivax Malariain a Tertiary Care Centre in Mumbai. JAPI. 2012 Oct;60:11-3.

Arévalo-Herrera M, Lopez-Perez M, Medina L, Moreno A, Gutierrez JB, Herrera S. Clinical profile of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in low and unstable malaria transmission settings of Colombia. Malaria J. 2015 Dec 1;14(1):154.