Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in infertile women and its association with hypothyroidism
Keywords:Hyperprolactinemia, Infertility, Hypothyroidism, Galactorrhea
Background: Hyperprolactinemia is one of the common endocrinological disorders affecting fertility by causing anovulatory cycles, luteal phase defect and sex hormone imbalances. There is higher incidence of hyperprolactinemia among infertile females. So estimation of serum prolactin should be done at an early stage of infertility workup which is cost effective and causes better outcome. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in female infertility after excluding tubal factor and male factor and to find its correlation with hypothyroidism.
Methods: Hospital based analytical cross sectional study was conducted for 1½ years, among 300 infertile females. Females with primary and secondary infertility. Male factor infertility, females with tubal factor, history of thyroid disease/thyroid surgery/thyroid medication.
Results: Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia that is serum prolactin > 25µg/L was 24.67%.The mean serum prolactin level in hyperprolactinemic females was 84.83µg/L. Incidence of hypothyroidism in hyperprolactinemia was 25.68%.Obesity (BMI >25) was present in 26% Galactorrhea was present in 20.27% females. Obesity and galactorrhea had strong positive correlation with hyperprolactinemia. Among the 300 females, 239 (79.6 %) had primary infertility and 61(20.4%) had secondary infertility.
Conclusions: Hyperprolactinemia alters the hypothalamopituitary ovarian axis and causes reproductive dysfunction. In our study, the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was found to be high among infertile females. The relatively high occurrence of hypothyroidism among infertile females emphasizes the importance of estimating both serum prolactin and TSH in infertility.
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