DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20160193

Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy urban and rural school children in and around Bangalore: a cross sectional study

Suman Meenakshi Gururaja

Abstract


Background: Among the chronic airway disease affecting children bronchial asthma is an important entity. It is a disease which is associated with fluctuation in the airway caliber and one of the earliest signs of attack is a fall in peak expiratory flow rate. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurement is a simple and a reliable way of detecting airway obstruction. In the study determination of PEFR of children in relation to the other anthropometric parameters, gender, environmental parameters and socioeconomic status was evaluated. Comparison of PEFR of urban and rural children was done to see for any significant difference.

Methods: A cross sectional study was done comparing a total of 563 children in the age group of 6 to 14 years from both urban and rural limits of Bangalore (290 from urban and 273 from rural). Mini Wright Peak Flow Meter was used to record PEFR.

Results: Positive co-relation was found between anthropometric variables like height, weight and body surface area with PEFR. P value showed significant difference between those who were exposed to pets than those who were not. P value difference was not significant between the urban and the rural children. With better socioeconomic status children had better PEFR.

Conclusions: There is no significant difference between PEFR of urban and rural children. It does not vary between boys and girls significantly. It varies with the built of the body. Pet exposure has a significant effect on PEFR values in children. Children from lower socioeconomic status have a lower PEFR compared to those from higher socioeconomic status.


Keywords


PEFR, Urban, Rural, Fuel, Pet exposure, Socioeconomic status

Full Text:

PDF

References


Milner AD, Ingram D. Peak expiratory flow rates in children under 5 years of age. Arch Dis child. 1970;45(244):780-2.

Swaminathan S, Venkatesan P, Mukunth R. Peak expiratory flow rate in South Indian children.IndianPediatr. 1993;30(2):207-11.

Kulpati DDS, Talwar D. Pediatric pulmonary function testing. Indian J Pediatrics. 1992;29(3):277-82.

Anderson HR. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee: Worldwide variations in the prevalence of asthma symptoms. Eur Respir J. 1998;12:315-35.

Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. 2011 census data. Available at http://www. censusindia.gov.in.

Standardization of spirometry-1987 update statement of the American thoracic society. Am Rev Resp Dis. 1987;136(5):1285,98.

Paramesh H. Normal Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Urban and Rural Children. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70(5):375-7.

Glew RH, Kassam H, Vander Voort J, Agaba PA, Harkins M, Vander Jagt DJ. Comparison of pulmonary function between children living in rural and urban areas in northern Nigeria. J Trop Pediatr. 2004;50(4):209-16.

Pasek M, Jerzemowski J. Respiratory System Parameters and Other Somatic Indicators of Fitness in Primary School Pupils Exemplified in the Pomeranian Province. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity © Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk. 2011;3(4):293-8.

Budhiraja S, Singh D, Pooni PA, Dhooria GS. Pulmonary functions in normal school children in the age group of 6-15 years in north India. Iran J Pediatr. 2010;20(1):82-90.

Dhillon SK, Kaur H, Kaur N. A Comparative study of peak expiratory flow rates of rural and urban males. Indian J Fund Appl Life Sci. 2011;1(4):255-8.

Kashyap S, Malik SK. Peak expiratory flow rates of healthy schoolboys from Himachal Pradesh (North India). Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 1987;29(4):216-8.

Mohammadzadeh I, Gharagozlou M, Fatemi SA. Normal values of peak expiratory flow rate in children from the town of Babol, Iran. Iran J Allergy. 2006;5(4):195-8.

Malik SK, Jindal SK, Sharda PK, Banga N. Peak expiratory flow rate of healthy schoolboys from Punjab. Indian Pediatr. 1981;18(8):517-21.

Udupihille M. Peak expiratory flow rate in Sri Lankan schoolchildren of Sinhalese ethnic origin. Respir Medicine. 1994;88(3):219-27.

Carson JWK, Hoey H, Taylor MRH. Growth and other factors affecting peak expiratory flow rate. Arch Dis Childhood. 1989;64:96-102.

Krakowiak A, Wiszniewska M, Krawczyk P, Szulc B, Wittczak T, Walusiak J, et al. Risk factors associated with airway allergic diseases from exposure to laboratory animal allergens among veterinarians. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007;80(6):465-75.

Sharma R, Jain A, Arya A, Chowdhary BR. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate of School Going Rural Children Aged 5-14 Years from Ajmer District. Indian Pediatr. 2002;39(1):75-8.