Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with HIV infection: a case report


  • Nitish J. Sawan Department of Internal Medicine, Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Govt. Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Anita Basavaraj Department of Internal Medicine, Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Govt. Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India



Antiretroviral therapy, Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, John-Cunningham virus, Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy


Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is defined as paradoxical worsening of a known condition or the appearance of a new condition after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. IRIS results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non-infectious antigens. Immune reconstitution following initiation of ART may lead to activation of an inflammatory response to detectable or latent JC virus (JCV) infection, an etiological agent of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML). We present an interesting case of IRIS manifesting as PML in a newlydiagnosed HIV-infected patient started on ART.


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