Correlation between atherogenic factors in complicated and uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus


  • Rajdeepak V. S. Department of General Medicine, Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Rekha G. Department of General Medicine, Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Jayashree S. C. Department of Radiodiagnosis, Apollo Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India



Body mass index, Diabetes mellitus, Hypercholesterolemia, Microvascular complications, Serum homocysteine


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. The factors contributing to hyperglycemia include reduced insulin secretion, decreased glucose utilization and increased glucose production. The vascular complications of DM are subdivided into microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) and macrovascular complications (coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease). There is an observed disparity between various vascular complications of diabetes and the atherogenic factors.

Methods: The patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending outpatient and inpatient departments in Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College and hospital, from September 2014 to September 2016 were selected for this study. All patients were subjected to detailed history, physical examination and laboratory investigations with respect to complications of diabetes mellitus.

Results: In this study, 76% of the patients had poor glycemic control with elevated HbA1c >7%. 38% of patients had normal BMI. 36% of patients were overweight and 26% were obese. 62% of patients were either overweight or obese. Hypercholesterolemia was seen in 26% of patients with poor glycemic control. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 38% of patients with microvascular complications and 33% of patients with macrovascular complications.

Conclusions: Type 2 diabetes mellitus showed a strong correlation between glycemic status and incidence of diabetes complications. Hypercholesterolemia and hyperhomocysteinemia have added to the increased incidence of complications as additional factors in metabolic derangements as a consequence of poor glycemic control.


Powers AC, Niswender KD, Evans-Molina C. Diabetes mellitus: diagnosis, classification, and pathophysiology Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 20th edition. Chapter 396; 2020:2850-2859.

Grundy SM, Benjamin IJ, Burke GL, Chait A, Eckel RH, Howard BV, et al. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 1999;100:1134-46.

Ramachandra A. Epidemic of diabetes and coronary artery disease in Indians-challenges ahead. Med Update. 2002:330-335.

Fischer M. Diabetes and atherogenesis. Heart. 2004;90(3):336-40.

Scott J, Huskisson EC. Graphic representation of pain. Pain.1976;2:175-86.

Sacks FM, Ridker PM. Lipid lowering and beyond: results from the CARE study on lipoproteins and inflammation: cholesterol and recurrent events. Herz. 1999;24:51-6.

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care at diabetes camps. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(suppl 1):S74-6.

Bloom R. emerging epidemic of type 2 diabetes in youth. Diabetes Care. 1999:22:345-54.

Panel III T. Third report of the NCEP expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult treatment panel III). Circulation. 2002;106:3143-421.

Bays HE, Chapman RH, Grandy S, SHIELD Investigators’ Group. The relationship of body mass index to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia: comparison of data from two national surveys. Inter J Clin Pract. 2007;61(5):737-47.

Vazquez G, Duval S, Jacobs DR, Silventoinen K. Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29(1):115-28.

Gupta S. Lipid profile pattern in type 2 diabetics from Central India: proceedings of RSSDI conference; 2000.

Al-Adsani A, Memon A, Suresh A. Pattern and determinants of dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Kuwait. Acta Diabetol. 2004;41(3):129-35.

Ismail IS, Nazaimoon W, Mohamad W, Letchuman R, Singaraveloo M, Hew FL, et al. Ethnicity and glycaemic control are major determinants of diabetic dyslipidaemia in Malaysia. Diabetic Med. 2001;18(6):501-8.

Buysschaert M, Dramais AS, Wallemacq PE, Hermans MP. Hyperhomocysteinemia in type 2 diabetes: relationship to macroangiopathy, nephropathy, and insulin resistance. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(12):1816-22.






Original Research Articles