DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20204061

Corona virus response: narrative on how the virus transformed lives in the rural areas of Abia state, Nigeria

E. E. Enwereji, M. C. Ezeama

Abstract


Background: Many people in communities especially children and elderly are at risk of losing their lives to pneumonia, diarrhoeal diseases, malaria, HIV and other preventable diseases unless urgent action is taken to mitigate the spread of COVID-19.  For instance, disruptions in immunization services for fear of getting infected with the virus will result in more children dying from pneumonia, which already kills many children in rural areas. Limited resources in rural areas may result to lack of basic hand washing facilities at home which form the fundamental mechanism to prevent COVID-19, thereby, expose   already vulnerable people in rural areas to infection.  Study assessed the extent to which individuals in rural areas effectively practiced preventive measures of COVID-19   infection as outlined by centre for disease control (CDC).Methods: This is   qualitative study that utilized   collaborative information from   36 health care professionals under the aegis of members of COVID-19 committee working together in partnership with   state government to ensure that best quality services are available to control, prevent and cushion   effects of COVID-19 during and after the COVID-19 crisis. This study is therefore, snapshot of activities individuals in rural areas take to prevent COVID-19 infection. Results: Findings showed that   preventive measures like lockdown and social distancing rules, wearing of face mask, hand washing with soap, and environmental cleanliness were slightly observed   thereby, exposing the rural areas to COVID-19 infection.  The study observed that   public and private life like sexual life, marital life, income, education, employment and social interaction were negatively affected.Conclusion: From the findings of the study, governments’ financial support during the lockdown was insignificant. Therefore, there is need for the governments to provide social amenities to alleviate the numerous socio-economic problems of individuals in the rural areas. 

Keywords


COVID-19, Environmental fluctuations, Community life, Violence

Full Text:

PDF

References


Hunter DJ. COVID-19 and the stiff upper lip-he pandemic response in the United Kingdom. N Engl J Med. 2020;16;382(16):e31.

Ferguson NM, Daniel Laydon, Gilani GN, Imai N, Ainslie K, Baguelin M, Bhatia S. Impact of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) to Reduce COVID19 Mortality and Healthcare Demand. London: Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team. 2020.

World Health Organization. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) multi-country outbreak-update 10: disease outbreak reported. 2003. Available at: https://www.who.int/csr/don/2003_03_26/en. Accessed 3 February 2020.

Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):470-3.

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterization and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565-74.

World Health Organisation. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. 2020. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports. Accessed on 5 Mar 2020.

Liu Y, Gayle AA, Wilder-Smith A, Rocklov J. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus. J Travel Med. 2020;13;27(2):taaa021.

Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):514-23.

Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579(7798):270-73.

Banerjee A, Kulcsar K, Misra V, Frieman M, Mossman K. Bats and coronaviruses. Viruses. 2019;11(1):E41.

Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, Ren W, Smith C, Epstein JH et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science. 2005;310(5748):676-9.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1708-20.

Chowell G, Abdirizak F, Lee S, Lee J, Jung E, Nishiura H, et al. Transmission characteristics of MERS and SARS in the healthcare setting: a comparative study. BMC Med. 2015;13:210.

Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019;17(3):181-92.

Angeletti S, Benvenuto D, Bianchi M, Giovanetti M, Pascarella S, Ciccozzi M. COVID-2019: the role of the nsp2 and nsp3 in its pathogenesis. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6):584-8.

ang X, Wu C, Li X, Song Y, Yao X, Wu X, et al. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Natl Sci Rev. 2020;7(6):1012-23.

Tortorici MA, Veesler D. Structural insights into coronavirus entry. Adv Virus Res. 2019;105:93-116.

Yu F, Du L, Ojcius DM, Pan C, Jiang S. Measures for diagnosing and treating infections by a novel coronavirus responsible for a pneumonia outbreak originating in Wuhan, China. Microbes Infect. 2020;22(2):74-79.

De Wilde AH, Snijder EJ, Kikkert M, van Hemert MJ. Host factors in coronavirus replication. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2018;419:1-42.

Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5:562-9.

Song W, Gui M, Wang X, Xiang Y. Cryo-EM structure of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein in complex with its host cell receptor ACE2. PLoS Pathog. 2018;14(8):e1007236.

Zhang W, Du RH, Li B, Zheng XS, Yang XL, Hu B, et al. Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):386-9.

Hamming I, Timens W, Bulthuis ML, Lely AT, Navis G, van Goor H. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol. 2004;203(2):631-7.

Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, Cheng H, Deng T, Fan YP, et al. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version). Mil Med Res. 2020;7(1):4.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506.

Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: the mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):401-2.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13.

Lee N, Hui D, Wu A, Chan P, Cameron P, Joynt GM, et al. A major outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(20):1986-94.

Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, Al-Rabiah FA, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Barrak A, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(9):752-61.

Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):441-7.

Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(5):475-81.

Liu Y, Zhang C, Huang F, Yang Y, Wang F, Yuan J, et al. 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections trigger an exaggerated cytokine response aggravating lung injury. 2020;7(11).

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected.Accessed April 8, 2020.

Chen L, Xiong J, Bao L, Shi Y. Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(4):398-400.

Zumla A, Chan JF, Azhar EI, Hui DS, Yuen KY. Coronaviruses - drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15(5):327-47.

Li H, Wang YM, Xu JY, Cao B. Potential antiviral therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis. 2020;43:E002.

Aguiar ACC, Murce E, Cortopassi WA, Pimentel AS, Almeida M, Barros DCS, et al. Chloroquine analogs as antimalarial candidates with potent in vitro and in vivo activity. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2018;8(3):459-64.

Nathaniel S. Straining the System: Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Preparedness for Concomitant Disasters. Am J Public Health. 2020;110(5):648-9.

Lourenco J, Paton R, Ghafari M, Kraemer M, Thompson C, Simmonds P et al. Fundamental principles of epidemic spread highlight the immediate need for large-scale serological surveys to assess the stage of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Medrxiv. 2020;3:1-7.

Chiu WT. Determinants of Taiwan’s Early Containment of COVID-19 Incidence. Am J Public Health. 2020;110(7):943-4.