Contrast-induced acute renal injury: multi-factor analysis to establish risks and associations

Jacob Joseph, Ashish Indani, Poonam Bhutada, Saji Jose


Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney Injury (CIAKI) also called nephropathy is one of the recurrent complications with very high mortality and morbidity rate amongst the patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The purpose of this research was to validate the incidence, risk factors, and correlation of various comorbidities with CIAKI.

Methods: The study was conducted on 308 patients who had undergone PCI procedures. All patients were recruited following all ethical guidelines. All patients were treated as per the hospital protocol. All patients were followed up for 7 days post PCI. Out of 308 patients, 35 developed CIKAI while remaining was classified as control for post-hoc analysis comparison. Evaluation of the patients was done using Mehran’s risk score, ODD analysis and RADHIKa method.

Results: The incidence of CIAKI was found in 35 (11.37%) out of 308 patients. No patients required dialysis within 1 week of the procedure. The use of the ionization optimized contrast medium (IOCM) is linked with the reduction of +CIAKI. The obvious relationship between the volume of contrast media, MRS, and CIAKI was reestablished. Post-hoc analysis of CIAKI and non-CIAKI revealed that the CIAKI is closely linked with heart failure as a risk factor. Congestive heart failure (CHF) increases the risk of CIAKI and that results in an increased risk of heart failure.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the pre-existing multiple co-morbidities, volume, and ionization value of the contrast media were found to be directly associated with CIAKI.


Contrast-induced nephropathy, Contrast-induced acute kidney injury, Renal injury, Serum creatinine, Angiography, PCI

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