Endometriosis a brief review: evaluation of crucial risk factors and current treatment regimes


  • Ashish Ashish Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6844-1289
  • Kusum Kusum Department of Zoology, Institute of Medical Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
  • Sangeeta Rai Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Medical Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
  • Royana Singh Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh




Endometriosis, Epidemiology, Infertility, Risk factors, Biomarkers, Genetic risk factor


Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disease associated with substantial morbidity, including dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, multiple surgery, and infertility. This disease has a high impact on both woman’s physical and mental wellbeing. The etiology of endometriosis is complex and multifactorial. The risk factors associated with the development of endometriosis include family history, menstrual and reproductive cycle, low body mass index (BMI), diet, alcohol uses, smoking, environmental factors, immune system, genetic factors and intrinsic abnormalities in the endometrium. There exist many theories on the initiation and propagation of different types of endometriotic lesions and consequent biological disturbances, of which the most common is the Sampson’s theory according to which the retrograde flow of menstrual blood is linked to the development of endometriosis. Endometriosis affected women have a higher risk than the general female population, for ovarian cancer, coronary heart disease (CHD), and other long-term disease risks as well for autoimmune and atopic disorders. Therefore it becomes a necessity for the clinician not only to attain right diagnosis but also follow up for the other associated disorders.  In this review, we have considered the crucial risk factors and biomarkers of the endometriosis as well as the possible pathogenesis towards the development of endometriosis and its prevention strategies. The currently available therapies for the control and treatment of endometriosis have also been elaborated.


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