Assessing depression, anxiety, stress and associated factors during COVID-19 lockdown among adult population in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Keywords:Anxiety, Coronavirus, COVID-19, DASS-21, Depression, SARS-CoV-2
Background: Depression, anxiety, and stress are challenging constraints that can greatly affect mental well-being leading to social, occupational, and physical impairments. Lockdown and social distancing have come to be the norms for preventing and controlling COVID-19, however maintaining these preventive measures for months could add to the burden of mental health. This study aims to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress during COVID-19 lockdown and to identify associated factors among adult individuals in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: The study utilized a quantitative descriptive design and data were gathered by means of online survey during the 10th week of lockdown. The survey contained demographic queries and other questions helping in identifying possible factors that may led to the three stressors along with DASS-21. A total of 1874 respondents participated in the study.
Results: Results revealed the prevalence of depression was (55.2%), anxiety was (64.5%) and stress was (45%), with degrees ranging from mild to extremely severe. Age was noted to negatively correlate with depression, anxiety and stress. The prevalence of DAS is found to be positively correlated with having a family history of depression or anxiety. Additionally, having chronic illnesses has been noted to have a positive relationship with both anxiety and stress. Taking care of an elderly or sick family member have a positive correlation with anxiety.
Conclusions: This study highlights the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on depression, anxiety and stress levels among adult population. The findings of this study revealed mild depression, moderate anxiety and mild stress. In more details, near to third of respondents were having moderate to extremely severe depression level. Participants with moderate to extremely severe anxiety comprised nearly half of the sample and one third of respondents were having moderate to extremely severe stress.
Kar SK, Yasir Arafat SM, Kabir R, Sharma P, Saxena SK. Coping with Mental Health Challenges During COVID-19. Coronavirus Disease. 2019 (COVID- 19). Epidemiol Pathog Diagn Therap. 2020;199-213.
Whiteford H, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter A, Ferrari A, Erskine H et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease. Study. Lancet. 2013;382:1575-86.
Paula JM, Sonobe HM, Nicolussi AC, Zago MM, Sawada NO. Symptoms of depression in patients with cancer of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy treatment: a prospective study. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2012;20:362-8.
World Health Organization. Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva. 2017. https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/prevalence_global_health_estimates/en/. Accessed on 2/09/2020.
Belmaker R, Agam G. Major Depressive Disorder. N Eng J Med. 2008;358:55-68.
American Psychological Association. Anxiety. Available from: https://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety/. Accessed on 28/05/2020.
Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S. Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Course of Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA. 2020;323:1488-94.
Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci China Life Sci. 2020;63:457-60.
Li H, Liu SM, Yu XH, Tang SL, Tang CK. Coronavirus disease. 2019 (COVID 19): current status and future perspectives. Int j antimicrobial agents. 2020;55:105951.
Barkur G, Vibha, Kamath GB. Sentiment analysis of nationwide lockdown due to COVID 19 outbreak: Evidence from India. Asian j psychiatry, 2020;51:102089.
Chakraborty K, Chatterjee M. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population in West Bengal, A cross-sectional study. Indian J Psychiatry. 2020;62:266-72.
Zhang Y, Ma ZF. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Quality of Life among Local Residents in Liaoning Province, China: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Env Res Pub Health. 2020;17.
Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Sydney. Psychol Found. 2020;1995.
Oei T, Sawang S, Goh Y, Mukhtar F. Using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) across cultures. Int J Psychol. 2013;48:1018-29.
Sahebi A, Asghari M, Salari R. Validation of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for an Iranian Population. 2005;1:36-54.
Coker A, Coker O, Sanni D. Psychometric properties of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Afr Res Review. 201812:135.
IBM Corp. Released 2019. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0 Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/how-cite-ibm-spss-statistics-or-earlier-versions-spss. Accessed on 02/10/2020.
Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int j env res pub health. 2020;17:1729.
Vinkers CH, Van Amelsvoort T, Bisson JI, Branchi I, Cryan JF, Domschke K et al. Stress resilience during the coronavirus pandemic. Eur neuropsychopharmacol j Eur Col Neuropsychopharmacol. 202035:12-6.
El-Zoghby SM, Soltan EM, Salama HM. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Social Support among Adult Egyptians. J community health. 2020;45:689-95.
Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu, Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General psychiatry. 2020;33:e100213.
Guessoum SB, Lachal J, Radjack R, Carretier E, Minassian S, Benoit L et al. Adolescent psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Psychiatry res. 2020;291:113264.