Assessing depression, anxiety, stress and associated factors during COVID-19 lockdown among adult population in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

Kawthar Al Saleh, Hajer Al Nasser, Kawthar Al Harabah, Zainab Al Orefan, Ola Mousa


Background: Depression, anxiety, and stress are challenging constraints that can greatly affect mental well-being leading to social, occupational, and physical impairments. Lockdown and social distancing have come to be the norms for preventing and controlling COVID-19, however maintaining these preventive measures for months could add to the burden of mental health. This study aims to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress during COVID-19 lockdown and to identify associated factors among adult individuals in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: The study utilized a quantitative descriptive design and data were gathered by means of online survey during the 10th week of lockdown. The survey contained demographic queries and other questions helping in identifying possible factors that may led to the three stressors along with DASS-21. A total of 1874 respondents participated in the study.

Results: Results revealed the prevalence of depression was (55.2%), anxiety was (64.5%) and stress was (45%), with degrees ranging from mild to extremely severe. Age was noted to negatively correlate with depression, anxiety and stress. The prevalence of DAS is found to be positively correlated with having a family history of depression or anxiety. Additionally, having chronic illnesses has been noted to have a positive relationship with both anxiety and stress. Taking care of an elderly or sick family member have a positive correlation with anxiety.

Conclusions: This study highlights the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on depression, anxiety and stress levels among adult population. The findings of this study revealed mild depression, moderate anxiety and mild stress. In more details, near to third of respondents were having moderate to extremely severe depression level. Participants with moderate to extremely severe anxiety comprised nearly half of the sample and one third of respondents were having moderate to extremely severe stress.



Anxiety, Coronavirus, COVID-19, DASS-21, Depression, SARS-CoV-2

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