Evaluation of the distribution of dendritic cells in healthy peri-implant mucosa in comparison to that of healthy gingiva: an original research


  • Yendluri Durga Bai Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Aditi Ramesh Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Telangana, India http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1001-170X
  • Deepti Kannam Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Jagadish Reddy Department of Periodontics, Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Telangana, India




Dendritic cells, Peri-implant mucosa, Periodontal tissue, Titanium implants


Background: Biofilm formation on the implant surface mainly results in peri-implant diseases which are characterized by the inflammatory destruction of the implant supporting tissues. The host response to infection differs between peri-implantitis and periodontitis, but the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear till date. In the present study, the distribution of dendritic cell sub populations in healthy peri-implant mucosa (HPIM) was compared with healthy mucosa (HM).

Methods: A total of 15 nonsmoker subjects were selected for the study. First sample of healthy mucosa was obtained prior to the implant placement (group I) and second sample of peri-implant mucosa was obtained at the time of placement of gingival former (group II). Immunochemistry was used to quantify dendritic cells in the samples. Statistical analysis used Wilcoxon matched paired test was used to compare the distribution of cells in epithelium and lamina propria.

Results: Mean number of factors XIIIa DC in epithelium and lamina propria in group I were 30.37±5.42 and 86.93±13.99 and group II were 50.47±7.27 and 124.33±10.27 respectively. Statistically significant difference in the number of cells in epithelium and lamina propria of group I and group II were noted (p=0.001).

Conclusions: In the lamina propria of HPIM, a higher number of factors XIIIa+ DC were observed compared to HM.

Author Biography

Aditi Ramesh, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Telangana, India

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology

Reader/ Associate Professor


Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature. 1998;392:245-52.

Belibasakis GN. Microbiological and immuno-pathological aspects of peri-implant diseases. Arch Oral Biol. 2014;59:66-72.

Pietschmann P, Stoeckl J, Draxler S, Majdic O, Knapp W. Functional and Phenotypic Characteristics of Dendritic Cells Generated in Human Plasma Supplemented Medium. Scand J Immunol. 2000;51:377-83.

Bullon P, Fioroni M, Goteri G, Rubini C. Immunohistochemical analysis of soft tissues in implants with healthy and peri‐implantitis condition, and aggressive periodontitis. Clin Oral Imp Res. 2004;15:553-9.

Brown LJ, Löe H. Prevalence, extent, severity and progression of periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 1993;2(1):57-71.

Wilensky A, Segev H, Mizraji G, Shaul Y, Capucha T, Shacham M, et al. Dendritic cells and their role in periodontal disease. Oral Diseases. 2014;20(2):119-26.

Deo V, Bhongade ML. Pathogenesis of periodontitis: role of cytokines in host response. Dentistry today. 2010;29(9):60-2.

Listgarten MA. Pathogenesis of Periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 1986;13:418-30.

Benakanakere, Kinane. Innate cellular responses to the periodontal biofilm. Oral Biol. 2012;15:41-55.

Arcia P, Lopez-Martinez P, Sada Q, Lomas G. Influence on the Peri implant soft tissue, Implant peri function on the role of anchor fixation Branemark implants valuation in the 3 to 5 years. Adv Periodontics. 2001;13:83-92.

Nussbaum G, Shapira L. How has neutrophil research improved our understanding of periodontal pathogenesis? J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:49-59.

Garlet GP. Destructive and protective roles of cytokines in periodontitis: a re-appraisal from host defense and tissue destruction viewpoints. J Dent Res. 2010;89:1349-63.

Papadopoulos N, Martin J, Ruan Q, Rafique A, Rosconi MP, Shi E et al., Binding and neutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and related ligands by VEGF Trap, ranibizumab and bevacizumab. Angiogenesis. 2012;15(2):171-85.

Health WR, Carbone FR. Dendritic cell subsets in primary and secondary T cell responses at body surfaces. Nature Immunol. 2009;10:1237-44.

Steinman RM, Cohn Z. Identification of A Novel Cell Type In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs Of Mice. J Exp Med. 1973;137:1142-62.

Steinman RM, Cohn ZA. Identification f A Novel Cell Type In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs Of Mice. J Exp Med. 1973;137:1142-62.

Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature. 1998;392:245-52.

Winzler C, Rovere P, Rescigno M, Granucci F, Penna G, Adorini L et al. Maturation stages of mouse dendritic cells in growth factor–dependent long-term cultures. J exp Med. 1997;185(2):317-28.

Inaba K, Inaba M, Naito M, Steinman RM. Dendritic cell progenitors phagocytose particulates, including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin organisms, and sensitize mice to mycobacterial antigens in vivo. J Exp Med. 1993;178:479-88.

Moll H, Fuchs H, Blank C, Rollinghoff M. Langerhans cells transport Leishmania major from the infected skin to the draining lymph node for presentation to antigen-specific T cells. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:1595-1601.

Sousa RC, Stahl PD, Austyn JM. Phagocytosis of antigens by Langerhans cells in vitro. J Exp Med. 1993;178:509-19.

Jiang W, Swiggard WJ, Heufler C, Peng M, Mirza A, Steinman RM et al. The receptor Dec-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing. Nature. 1995;375(6527):151-5.

Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature. 1988;392:245-52.

Konttinen YT, Lappalainen R, Laine P, Kitti U, Santavirta S, Teronen O. Immunohistochemical evaluation of Inflammatory Mediators in Failing Implants. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2006;26:135-41.

Cornaglia MF. Microscopic, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural properties of peri-implant mucosa in humans. J Periodontol. 2002;73:555-63.

Jotwani R, Palucka AK, Al-Quotub M, Nouri-Shirazi M, Kim J, Bell D, et al. Mature Dendritic Cells Infiltrate the T Cell-Rich Region of Oral Mucosa in Chronic Periodontitis: In Situ, In Vivo, and In Vitro Studies. J Immunol. 2001;167:4693-700.

Jaitley S, Gopu S, Rajasekharan S, Sivapathasundaram B. Immunohistochemical analysis of Langerhans cells in chronic gingivitis using anti-CD1a antibody. Dent Res J. 2014;11:173-79.

Clode CM, Filgueira S. Effects of titanium (iv) ions on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Metallomics. 2009;1:166-74.

Geijtenbeek TB, Krooshoop DJ, Bleijs DA, van Vliet SJ, Van Duijnhoven GC, Grabovsky V, et al. DC-SIGN-ICAM-2 interaction mediates dendritic cell trafficking. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:353-7.

Geijtenbeek TB, Torensma S, Van Vliet. Identification of DC-SIGN, a novel dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 receptor that supports primary immune responses. Cell. 2000;100:575-85.

Meikle MC, Atkinson SJ, Ward RV, Murphy G, Reynolds JJ. Gingival fibroblasts degrade type I collagen films when stimulated with tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1: Evidence that breakdown is mediated by metalloproteinases. J Periodontal Res. 1989;24:207-13.

Mutyambizia K, Bergera CL, Edelsona RL. The balance between immunity and tolerance: The role of Langerhans cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:831-40.

Cury PR, Arsati F, De Magalhães MH, De Araújo VC, De Araújo NS, Barbuto JA. Antigen‐presenting cells in human immunosuppressive drug‐induced gingival enlargement. Special Care Dent. 2009;29(2):80-4.






Original Research Articles