Study of serum adiponectin levels for early detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications on kidney


  • Harish K. V. Department of Medicine, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Hareesh R. Department of Medicine, Akash Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Akshatha Savith Department of Medicine, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India



Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabetic nephropathy, Enzyme linked immunosorbent essay, Albumin creatinine ratio


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder due to insulin resistance caused by destruction of beta cells of pancreas. Insulin resistance in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients leads to hyperglycemia. Serum adiponectin is a more sensitive and specific biomarker for early detection of diabetic nephropathy than urinary microalbuminuria.

Methods: This is a case-control study conducted in Akash Institute of Medical Sciences, A total 180 subjects (120 cases and 60 controls). All the subjects included after informed consent, blood samples and urine samples are collected from the all the subjects. The serum Adiponectin and was estimated by using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and fasting blood sugar (FBS), post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) and renal function test (RFT) was also estimated by laboratory standard methods.

Results: This study was evaluated the FBS, PPBS, RFT and serum adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and compare them with healthy controls. The serum adiponectin levels more significantly elevated in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and compared with the healthy controls. The study also found that significantly elevated levels of FBS, PPBS and RFT in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and compared with the healthy controls, The statistically significant levels of serum adiponectin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and when compared with the controls (p= 0.0001).

Conclusions: The study suggesting that the s estimation of serum adiponectin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients useful for early detection of diabetic nephropathy. Because elevated levels of serum adiponectin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, this levels are positively correlated with the FBS and PPBS.



Mohan V, Sandeep S, Deepa R, Shah B, Varghese C. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: Indian Scenario. Indian J Med Res. 2007;125:217‑30.

Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;87:4‑14.

Sosale A, Prasanna KM, Sadikot SM, Nigam A, Bajaj S, Zargar AH, et al. Chronic complications in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014;18:355‑60.

Pereira RI, Wang CC, Hosokawa P, Dickinson LM, Chonchol M, Krantz MJ et al. Circulating adiponectin levels are lower in Latino versus non-Latino white patients at risk for cardiovascular disease, independent of adiposity measures. BMC Endocr Disord. 2011;11:13.

Kizer JR. A tangled threesome: Adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and adiposity: Can mendelian randomization sort out causality? Diabetes. 2013;62:1007-9.

Shehzad A, Iqbal W, Shehzad O, Lee YS. Adiponectin: Regulation of its production and its role in human diseases. Hormones (Athens). 2012;11:8-20.

Saad EA, Habib SA, Refai WA, Elfayoumy AA. Malondialdehyde, adiponectin, nitric oxide, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin resistance relationships and inter-relationships in Type 2 diabetes early stage. Is metformin alone adequate in this stage? Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2017;9:176-81.

Nakanishi S, Yamane K, Kamei N, Nojima H, Okubo M, Kohno N. A protective effect of adiponectin against oxidative stress in Japanese Americans: The association between adiponectin or leptin and urinary isoprostane. Metabolism. 2005;54:194-9.

Gable DR, Hurel SJ, Humphries SE. Adiponectin and its gene variants as risk factors for insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2006;188:231-44.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Waki H. The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity Nat Med. 2001;7:941-46.

de Zeeuw D, Remuzzi G, Parving H-H, Keane WF, Zhang Z, Shahinfar S, et al. Proteinuria, a target for renoprotection in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy: Lessons from RENAAL. Kidney Int. 2004;65:2309-20.

de Jong PE, Hillege HL, Pinto-Sietsma SJ, de Zeeuw D. Screening for microalbuminuria in the general population: a tool to detect subjects at risk for progressive renal failure in an early phase? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:10-3.

Heerspink HJL, Holtkamp FA, Zeeuw D de, Ravid M. Monitoring Kidney Function and Albuminuria in Patients With Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(2):S325-9.

Igo RP, Iyengar SK, Nicholas SB, Goddard KAB, Langefeld CD, Hanson RL, et al. Genomewide Linkage Scan for Diabetic Renal Failure and Albuminuria: The FIND Study. Am J Nephrol. 2011;33:381-9.

Pezzolesi MG, Poznik GD, Mychaleckyj JC, Paterson AD, Barati MT, Klein JB, et al. Genome-wide association scan for diabetic nephropathy susceptibility genes in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2009;58:1403-10.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2018. Diabates Care. 2018;36(1):S11-S66.

Debbarma B, Debbarma R, Pegu AK, Khare R. Significance of Microalbuminuria in Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2015;14:40-47.

Tzeng TF, Hsiao PJ, Hsieh MC, Shin SJ. Association of nephropathy and retinopathy, blood pressure, age in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2001;17:294-301.

Voulgari C, Katsilambros N, Tentolouris N. Smoking cessation predicts amelioration of microalbuminuria in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year prospective study. Metabolism. 2011;60:1456-64.

Balagopal P, George D, Yarandi H, Funanage V, Bayne E: Reversal of obesity-related hypoadiponectinemia by lifestyle intervention – a controlled randomized study in obese adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:6192-197.

Monzillo LU, Hamdy O, Horton ES, Ledbury S, Mullooly C, Jarema C. Effect of lifestyle modification on adipokine levels in obese subjects with insulin resistance. Obes Res. 2003;11:1048-054.

Kriketos AD, Gan SK, Poynten AM, Furler SM, Chisholm DJ, Campbell LV. Exercise increases adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:629-30.

Silva FM, De Almeida JC, Feoli AM: Effect of diet on adiponectin levels in blood. Nutr Rev. 2011;69:599-612.

Mantzoros CS, Williams CJ, Manson JE, Meigs JB, Hu FB. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is positively associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetic women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:328-35.

Anders J, Tarnow L, Frystyk J, Maria L, Flyvbjerg A, Hans-Henrik P, et al. Serum adiponectin predicts all-cause mortality and end stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

Arundhati GD, Kuvalekar AA, Siddharth D, Aditya MV, Vivek AN, Abhijit AG. Correlation of Serum Adiponectin and Leptin levels in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2018;22:93-9.






Original Research Articles