Published: 2017-01-22

Prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Mane Madan Mohan, Chandra Sekhar V


Background: Microalbuminuria, which arises very early in the disease and is one of the first markers for diabetic nephropathy, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and the risk factors of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

Methods: 246 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the study wherein age, sex, duration of the diabetes and body mass index were noted. Blood pressure was taken for all the patients for detection of hypertension and blood was collected after fasting for a minimum of 12 hour for fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride levels.  

Results: Out of the 246 patients, 185 (75.2 %) of the patients had normal levels of albumin while 61(24.8%) of them had microalbuminuria. Incidence of males was more common and the mean age in which diabetes was detected among the patients enrolled was in the early 40s. High systolic blood pressure with mean value 135, fasting blood sugar 172, cholesterol 181, HbA1C 8.7 was observed among the patients. The average duration of diabetes was found to be 9 years among the patients with microalbuminuria.

Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of microalbuminuria among the patients with diabetes type 2 in our geographical area. Hypertension, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c were found to be the risk factors. Therefore, the early identification of patients at greatest risk, and the subsequent initiation of renal and cardiovascular protective treatments, are of the utmost importance. 


Diabetes mellitus, Microalbuminuria, HbA1C, Risk factor

Full Text:



Defronzo RA. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Rev. 1997;5:177.

Jerums G, MacIsaac RJ. Treatment of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treat Endocrinol. 2002;1(3):163-73.

Sheikh SA, Baig JA, Iqbal T, Kazmi T, Baig M, Husain SS. Prevalence of microalbuminuria with relation to glycemic control in type-2 diabetic patients in Karachi. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009 Jul-Sep;21(3):83-6.

International Diabetes Foundation. Diabetes e-Atlas, 2004. Available at: Accessed 8 January 2004.

World Health Organization. The world health report 1997, 2004. Available at: Accessed 8 January 2004.

Afkhami-Ardekani M, Modarresi M, Amirchaghmaghi E. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Indian J Nephrol. 2008 Jul;18(3):112-7.

Raine AE. Epidemiology, development and treatment of end-stage renal failure in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients in Europe. Diabetologia. 1993;36:1099-104.

Ritz E. Nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. J Intern Med. 1999;245:111-26.

Guidelines LMP. Microalbuminuria, September 2, 2012. Available at:

Rodicio JL, Campo C, Ruilope LM. Microalbuminuria in essential hypertension. Kidney Int. 1998;54:1523-755.

Ruilope LM, Rodicio JL. Clinical relevance of proteinuria and microalbuminuria. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 1993;2:962-7.

12. International Diabetes Federation (2012) IDF diabetes atlas [Homepage on the Internet].

Amos A, McCarty D, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: Estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med. 1997;14:S1-85.

Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature. 2001;414:782-7.

Ritz E, Rychlik I, Locatelli F, Halimi S. End-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes: a medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;34:795-808.

Ritz E, Orth SR. Nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1127-33.

Parving HH. Diabetic nephropathy: prevention and treatment. Kidney Int. 2001;60:2041-55.

Vijay V, Snehalatha C, Ramachandran A, Viswanathan M. The prevalence of proteinuria in non-insulin dependent diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India. 1994;42:792-4.

Varghese A, Deepa R, Rema M, Mohan V. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus at a diabetes center in Southern India. Postgrad Med J. 2001;77:399-402.

Gupta DK, Verma LK, Khosla PK, Dash SC. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in diabetes: a study from north India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1991;12:125-8.

Huraib S, Abu-Aisha H, Sulimani RA, Famuyiwa FO, Al-Wakeel J, Askar A, et al. The pattern of diabetic nephropathy among Saudi patients with NIDDM. Ann Saudi Med. 1995;15:120-4.

Ko GT, Chan JC, Lau M, Cockram CS. Diabetic microangiopathic complications in young Chinese diabetic patients: a clinic based cross sectional study. J Diabetes Compl. 1999;13:300-6.

Gatling W, Knight C, Mullee MA, Hill RD. Microalbuminuria in diabetes: a population study of the prevalence and an assessment of three screening tests. Diabet Med. 1988;5:343-7.

HaVner SM, Morales PA, Gruber MK, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Cardiovascular risk factors in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects with microalbuminuria. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993;13:205-10.

Marshall SM, Alberti KGMM. Comparison of the prevalence and associated features of abnormal albumin excretion in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Q J Med. 1989;70:61-71.

John L, Rao PS, Kanagasabapathy AS. Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in non-insulin dependent diabetes. Indian J Med Res. 1991;94:24-9.

Gall MA, Rossing P, Skott P, Damsbo P, Vaag A, Bech K, et al. Prevalence of micro-and macroalbuminuria, arterial hypertension, retinopathy and large vessel disease in European type 2 (non-insulindependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 1991;34:655-61.

Olivarius N, Andreasen AH, Keiding N, Mogensen CE. Epidemiological study of renal involvement in newly-diagnosed middle aged and elderly diabetic patients: cross-sectional data from the population based study “Diabetes Care in General Practice”, Denmark. Diabetologia. 1993;36:1007-16.

Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in older-onset-diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1993;16:1325-9.