DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20212111

An update on inflammatory markers in metabolic syndrome

Akshay Prashanth Giri, Lokesh Shanmugam

Abstract


Metabolic syndrome is an emerging global threat as a major health burden. It is widely presumed that Metabolic syndrome is associated with a low grade chronic inflammatory phenomenon. This inflammatory state is due to the imbalance between the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Studies have been performed on various inflammatory markers in metabolic syndrome like hsCRP, TNF-alpha, Adiponectin, IL-6, IL-10. Articles were chosen from indexed journals from various search engines. Pro inflammatory cytokines like hsCRP, TNF – alpha, Interleukin -6 were found to be increased and anti-inflammatory cytokines like Interleukin – 10 were reduced in metabolic syndrome.  


Keywords


Metabolic syndrome, Cytokine, Inflammatory marker, hsCRP, Interleukin

Full Text:

PDF

References


Willerson JT, Ridker PM. Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor. Circulation. 2004;109:II2-10.

Kuller LH, Tracy RP, Shaten J, Meilahn EN. Relation of C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease in the MRFIT nested case-control study. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144:537-47.

Ridker PM, Buring JE, Shih J, Matias M, Hennekens CH. Prospective study of C-reactive protein and the risk of future cardiovascular events among apparently healthy women. Circulation. 1998;98:731-3.

Ridker PM. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein: potential adjunct for global risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2001;103:1813-8.

Lemieux I, Pascot A, Prud'homme D, Almeras N, Bogaty P, Nadeau A, Bergeron J, Despres JP. Elevated C-reactive protein: another component of the atherothrombotic profile of abdominal obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:961-7.

Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2001;286:327-34.

Wisse BE. The inflammatory syndrome: the role of adipose tissue cytokines in metabolic disorders linked to obesity. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:2792-800.

Fernandez-Real JM, Ricart W. Insulin resistance and chronic cardiovascular inflammatory syndrome. Endocr Rev. 2003;24:278-301.

Dyck DJ, Heigenhauser GJ, Bruce CR. The role of adipokines as regulators of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2006;186:5-16.

Ryden M, Arner P. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha in human adipose tissue -- from signalling mechanisms to clinical implications. J Intern Med. 2007;262:431-8.

Yudkin JS, Kumari M, Humphries SE, Mohamed-Ali V. Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link? Atherosclerosis. 2000;148:209-14.

Pedersen BK, Steensberg A, Schjerling P. Muscle-derived interleukin-6: possible biological effects. J Physiol. 2001;536:329-37.

Mohamed-Ali V, Goodrick S, Rawesh A, Katz DR, Miles JM, Yudkin JS et al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:4196-200.

Fried SK, Bunkin DA, Greenberg AS. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin-6: depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:847-850.

Harris TB, Ferrucci L, Tracy RP, Corti MC, Wacholder S, Ettinger WH, Jr et al. Associations of elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels with mortality in the elderly. Am J Med. 1999;106:506-512.

Ridker PM, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH. Plasma concentration of interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation. 2000;101:1767-72.

Hardie DG. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the metabolic syndrome and in heart disease. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:81-9.

Ruderman NB, Keller C, Richard AM, Saha AK, Luo Z, Xiang X et al. Interleukin-6 regulation of AMPactivated protein kinase. Potential role in the systemic response to exercise and prevention of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2006;55 Suppl 2:S48-54.

Ukkola O, Santaniemi M. Adiponectin: a link between excess adiposity and associated comorbidities? J Mol Med. 2002;80:696-702.

Goldstein BJ, Scalia R. Adiponectin: A novel adipokine linking adipocytes and vascular function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2563-68.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Minokoshi Y, Ito Y, Waki H, Uchida S et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med. 2002;8:1288-95.

Cote M, Mauriege P, Bergeron J, Almeras N, Tremblay A, Lemieux I et al. Adiponectinemia in visceral obesity: impact on glucose tolerance and plasma lipoprotein and lipid levels in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1434-9.

Santaniemi M, Kesäniemi YA, Ukkola O. Low plasma adiponectin concentration is an indicator of the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:745-50.

Ballou SP, Lozanski FB, Hodder S, Rzewnicki DL, Mion LC, Sipe JD et al. Quantitative and qualitative alterations of acute-phase proteins in healthy elderly persons. Age Ageing. 1996;25:224-30.

Straub RH, Cutolo M, Zietz B, Scholmerich J. The process of aging changes the interplay of the immune, endocrine and nervous systems. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001;122:1591-611.

Bruunsgaard H, Skinhoj P, Pedersen AN, Schroll M, Pedersen BK. Ageing, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and atherosclerosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;121:255-60.

Wannamethee SG, Lowe GD, Shaper AG, Rumley A, Lennon L, Whincup PH. The metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: relationship to haemostatic and inflammatory markers in older nondiabetic men. Atherosclerosis. 2005;181:101-8.

Rutter MK, Meigs JB, Sullivan LM, D'Agostino RB S, Wilson PW. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation. 2004;110:380-85.

Lee WY, Park JS, Noh SY, Rhee EJ, Sung KC, Kim BS et al. C-reactive protein concentrations are related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome as defined by the ATP III report. Int J Cardiol. 2004;97:101-6.

Santos AC, Lopes C, Guimaraes JT, Barros H. Central obesity as a major determinant ofincreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005;29:1452-6.

Lim S, Lee HK, Kimm KC, Park C, Shin C, Cho NH. C-reactive protein level as anindependent risk factor of metabolic syndrome in the Korean population. CRP as risk factor ofmetabolic syndrome. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;70:126-33.

Ford ES, Ajani UA, Mokdad AH. National Health and Nutrition Examination. The metabolic syndrome and concentrations of C-reactive protein among U.S. youth. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:878-81.

Florez H, Castillo-Florez S, Mendez A, Casanova-Romero P, Larreal-Urdaneta C, Lee D et al. C-reactive protein is elevated in obese patients with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006;71:92-100.

Ukkola O, Kesäniemi YA. Leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and their interaction inthe metabolic syndrome in middle-aged subjects. Metabolism. 2007;56:1221-7.

Yudkin JS, Stehouwer CD, Emeis JJ, Coppack SW. C-reactive protein in healthy subjects:associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction: a potential role forcytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:972-8.

Sesso HD, Buring JE, Rifai N, Blake GJ, Gaziano JM, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein and therisk of developing hypertension. JAMA. 2003;290:2945-951.

Han TS, Sattar N, Williams K, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Lean ME, Haffner SM. Prospectivestudy of C-reactive protein in relation to the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in theMexico City Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2016-21.

Ridker PM, Buring JE, Cook NR, Rifai N. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and riskof incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women. Circulation. 2003;107:391-7.

Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L, Nyyssönen K, Punnonen K, Tuomainen TP, Valkonen VP et al. C-reactive protein and the development of the metabolic syndrome anddiabetes in middle-aged men. Diabetologia. 2004;47:1403-10.

Browning LM, Jebb SA, Mishra GD, Cooke JH, O'Connell MA, Crook MA et al. Elevated sialic acid, but not CRP, predicts features of the metabolic syndrome independently of BMI in women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:1004-10.

Chang JS, Bai CH, Huang ZC, Owaga E, Chao KC, Chang CC, et al. Interleukin 10 and clustering of metabolic syndrome components in pediatrics. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014;44:384-94.

Han X, Kitamoto S, Lian Q, Boisvert WA. Interleukin-10 facilitates both cholesterol uptake and efflux in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32950-8.

Schottelius AJ, Mayo MW, Sartor RB, Baldwin AS. Interleukin-10 signaling blocks inhibitor of kappa B kinase activity and nuclear factor kappa B DNA binding. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31868-74.

Lumeng CN, Bodzin JL, Saltiel AR. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:175-84.

Gotoh K, Inoue M, Masaki T, Chiba S, Shimasaki T, Ando H, et al. A novel anti-inflammatory role for spleen-derived interleukin-10 in obesity-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue and liver. Diabetes. 2012;61:1994-2003.

Gotoh K, Fujiwara K, Anai M, Okamoto M, Masaki T, Kakuma T, et al. Role of spleen-derived IL-10 in prevention of systemic low grade inflammation by obesity [Review]. Endocr J. 2017;64:375-8.

Barbuio R, Milanski M, Bertolo MB, Saad MJ, Velloso LA. Infliximab reverses steatosis and improves insulin signal transduction in liver of rats fed a high-fat diet. J Endocrinol. 2007;194:539-50.

Zhang LJ, Zheng WD, Chen YX, Huang YH, Chen ZX, et al. Antifibrotic effects of interleukin-10 on experimental hepatic fibrosis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007; 54:2092-8.

Esposito K, Pontillo A, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, Marfella R, Nicoletti G et al. Association of low interleukin-10 levels with the metabolic syndrome in obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1055-8.