Prevalence of anaemia and its correlation with glycosylated haemoglobin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an observational study
Keywords:Hba1c, Anaemia, Type 2 diabetes
Background: Anaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus are two sides of a coin affecting the quality of life of the patients. Anaemia associated with diabetic status of the patients disturbs the exercise capacity, increases fatigue, anorexia, depression, cognitive dysfunction and decreased libido. Hence, we conducted a study to find the prevalence of anaemia among patients with type 2 diabetic patients and its correlation with glycosylated haemoglobin.
Methods: An observational study was conducted in the department of medicine in a tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra. The data was collected from patients with type 2 diabetes attending the outpatient department during a span of 5 months (September 2020 to February 2021). The patients with pre-existing hypertension, chronic renal failure, congestive cardiac failure, stroke and other haematological disorders were excluded from the study. Patients on hormonal therapy, pregnant and lactating patients were also excluded from the study. Prior to the start of the study necessary permissions were taken from the institutional ethics committee. Relevant statistics were used to analyse the data.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia in the present study was 45 (56.25%). Among these 45 patients 37 patients had normocytic normochromic anaemia, 6 cases of microcytic hypochromic anaemia and 2 cases of macrocytic anaemia. The mean haemoglobin levels among patients with Hba1c more than 7% was 9.7±1.12 and among Hba1c less than 7% was 12. 23±1.08 and this difference was statistically significant.
Conclusions: About half of the patients were anaemic in the present study. Normochromic normocytic anaemia was the most common type of anaemia. There was significant association with levels of anaemia with Hb1ac in the present study.
Kharroubi AT, Darwish HM. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(6):850-67.
Olokoba AB, Obateru OA, Olokoba LB. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of current trends. Oman Med J. 2012;27(4):269-73.
Boutayeb A. The burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Preedy VR, Watson RR, editors. Handb Dis Burdens Qual Life Meas. 2010;531-46.
Nethan S, Sinha D, Mehrotra R. Non-communicable disease risk factors and their trends in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(7):2005-10.
Weiss G, Goodnough LT. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(10):1011-23.
Escorcio CSM, Silva HF, Junior GBS, Monteiro MP, Gonçalves RP. Evaluation of anemia treatment with EPO and oral and iv iron in patients with chronic kidney disease under hemodialysis. RBSA. 2010;42(2):87-90.
Macciò A, Madeddu C. Management of anemia of inflammation in the elderly. Anemia. 2012;23:112-4.
Trikkalinou A, Papazafiropoulou AK, Melidonis A. Type 2 diabetes and quality of life. World J Diabetes. 2017;8(4):120-9.
Ramachandran A. Know the signs and symptoms of diabetes. Indian J Med Res. 2014;140(5):579-81.
Sami W, Ansari T, Butt NS, Hamid MRA. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. Int J Health Sci. 2017;11(2):65-71.
AlDallal SM, Jena N. Prevalence of Anemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. J Hematol. 2018;7(2):57-61.
Cappellini MD, Motta I. Anemia in Clinical Practice-Definition and Classification: Does Hemoglobin Change With Aging? Semin Hematol. 2015;52(4):261-9.
Hussain S, Habib A, Najmi A. Anemia prevalence and its impact on health-related quality of life in Indian diabetic kidney disease patients: Evidence from a cross-sectional study. J Evid Based Med. 2019;12:243-52.
Feteh VF, Choukem S-P, Kengne A-P, Nebongo DN, Ngowe-Ngowe M. Anemia in type 2 diabetic patients and correlation with kidney function in a tertiary care sub-Saharan African hospital: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17(1):29.
Bajaj S, Makkar B, Abichandani V, Talwalkar P, Saboo B, Srikanta S, et al. Management of anemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease: A consensus statement. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;20(2):268-81.
Hosseini MS, Rostami Z, Saadat A, Saadatmand SM, Naeimi E. Anemia and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nephrourol Mon. 2014;6(4):e1997-6.
He B Bin, Xu M, Wei L, Gu YJ, Han JF, Liu YX, et al. Relationship between Anemia and Chronic Complications in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Arch Iran Med. 2015;18(5):277-83.
Al-Salman M. Anemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence and Progression. Gen Med Open Access. 2014;03(01):9-12.
Adebimpe WO, Faremi AO, Hassan AWO. Prevalence and knowledge of Salmonella infections among food handlers: Implications for school health in Southwestern Nigeria. Sahel Med J. 2018;21(2):99-103.
Bekele A, Roba KT, Egata G, Gebremichael B. Anemia and associated factors among type-2 diabetes mellitus patients attending public hospitals in Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):1-17.
Thambiah SC, Samsudin IN, George E, Ranjit LK, Saat NS, Hussein Z, et al. Anaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Hospital Putrajaya. Malaysian J Med Heal Sci. 2015;11(1):49-61.
Rathore S, Singh PK, Kumar A. Anemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2dm) and its association with vitamin B12 deficiency. Indian J Pathol Oncol. 2020;5(1):51-4.
Kaushik D, Parashar R, Malik PK. Study of anaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Res Med Sci. 2018;6(5):1529-33.
Sajid A, Waseem S. Study of anemia in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects: A hospital-based study in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2020;10(0):1.
Pathak J, Vadodariya V, Jhala A, Bhojwani D, Brahmbhatt N. Anemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Absence of Renal Insufficiency. Int J Contemp Med Res. 2019;6(11):15-8.
Mokgalaboni K, Mabusela MS, Moraba MM. Haematological Indices and Anaemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;2(7):899-908.