Published: 2021-10-26

Elevated heart rate across cardiovascular continuum and its management

Ashok Punjabi, Sheeba George, Peyush Khera, Sameer Srivastava


Elevated heart rate in both healthy individuals and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure poses a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. This fact has further been supported by several studies pointing out to elevated resting heart rate as an important marker for this catastrophe necessitating a prompt therapeutic action plan, consisting of early detection and treatment of the risk factors, to achieve ideal heart rates (approximately 60 beats/minute) in patients which could stop or prevent the progression of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) continuum. Lowering heart rate by therapeutic interventions has shown favorable results, but most of the data so far is retrospective and limited to AMI and heart failure with beta-blocker treatment. Addition of newer drugs into the cardiac armamentarium, like ivabradine, a sinus node inhibitor acting by selective heart rate reduction, has shown several beneficial effects in a variety of conditions spanning from stable angina to heart failure. A consensus meeting was held at the national level wherein experts from various parts of the country discussed and reviewed the importance of heart rate lowering across CV continuum and addition of ivabradine for patients with chronic heart failure and chronic stable angina.


Cardiovascular disease, Acute myocardial infarction, Chronic stable angina, Heart failure, Ivabradine

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