Effects of metabolic syndrome on pulmonary function tests


  • Sidhant Sachdeva Department of Medicine, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Gurinder Mohan Department of Medicine, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Sunil Grover Department of Chest TB, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Shashi Mahajan Department of Physiology, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India




Metabolic syndrome, Pulmonary function tests, FEV1, FVC


Background: Metabolic syndrome is defined as at least three of the five following medical conditions: central obesity(mandatory), high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It has been shown that obesity causes physiological impairment in respiratory system.

Methods: In this observational cross sectional study, 60 patients who fulfilled the IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome were included after applying the exclusion criteria and were subjected to spirometry.

Results: Most of the patients had a restrictive pattern (43.3%) (n=26). 33.3% (n=20) of the patients had a mixed pattern while 16.7% (n=10) of the patients had a normal picture. Only 6.7% (n=4) of the patients had an obstructive pattern (p<0.001). Mean value of FEV1 had no correlation with increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome whereas mean value of FVC showed a decreasing trend with increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome. Mean FEV1 of the patients was significantly higher in males (1.82±0.71 L) than females (1.24±0.42 L) (p 0.007). Similarly, the mean FVC was significantly higher in males as compared to females. Mean FVC was 2.45 (±0.86) L in males while females had a mean FVC of 1.65 (±0.49) L (p 0.002).

Conclusions: In conclusion, Patients with metabolic syndrome have significant impairment of the pulmonary function with restrictive pattern being the most common one.


Bhatti JS, Kumar S, Vijayan M, Bhatti GK, Reddy PH. Therapeutic strategies for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in age-related metabolic disorders. Progress Molecular Biol Translational Sci. 2017;146(1):13-46.

Mendrick DL, Diehl AM, Topor LS, Dietert RR, Will Y, La Merrill MA et al. Metabolic syndrome and associated diseases: from the bench to the clinic. Toxicological Sciences. 2018;162(1):36-42.

Chaudhary SC, Kumari T, Usman K, Sawlani KK, Himanshu D, Gupta KK et al. Study of pulmonary function test abnormalities in metabolic syndrome. Journal of The Association of Physicians of India. 2018;66(10):27-30.

Mahmud T, Siddique M, Naveed A. Pulmonary function abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome. Proceeding SZPGMI. 2013;27(2):69-73.

Kim SK, Bae JC, Baek JH, Jee JH, Hur KY, Lee MK et al. Decline in lung function rather than baseline lung function is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome: A six-year longitudinal study. PloS one. 2017;12(3):0174228.

Adeyeye OO, Ogbera OA, Dada AO, Bamisile RT, Mens A. Correlates of abnormal pulmonary function tests in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Pulm Respir Med. 2014;5(1):231.

Negm MF, Essawy TS, Mohammad OI, Gouda TM, EL-Badawy AM, Shahoot AG. The impact of metabolic syndrome on ventilatory pulmonary functions. Egyptian J Bronchol. 2017;11(4):293-300.

Van Huisstede A, Cabezas MC, Birnie E, van de Geijn GJ, Rudolphus A, Mannaerts G et al. Systemic inflammation and lung function impairment in morbidly obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Journal of obesity. 2013;2013:131349.

Dixon AE, Johnson SE, Griffes LV, Raymond DM, Ramdeo R, Soloveichik A et al. Relationship of adipokines with immune response and lung function in obese asthmatic and non-asthmatic women. Journal of Asthma. 2011;48(8):811-7.

Farney RJ, Walker BS, Farney RM, Snow GL, Walker JM. The STOP-Bang equivalent model and prediction of severity of obstructive sleep apnea: relation to polysomnographic measurements of the apnea/hypopnea index. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2011;7(5):459-65.

Chen WL, Wang CC, Wu LW, Kao TW, Chan JY, Chen YJ et al. Relationship between lung function and metabolic syndrome. PloS one. 2014;9(10):108989.

Leone N, Courbon D, Thomas F, Bean K, Jégo B, Leynaert B et al. Lung function impairment and metabolic syndrome: the critical role of abdominal obesity. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2009;179(6):509-16.

Berryman DE, Glad CA, List EO, Johannsson G. The GH/IGF-1 axis in obesity: pathophysiology and therapeutic considerations. Nature Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9(6):346-56.

Kırdar S, Serter M, Ceylan E, Şener AG, Kavak T, Karadağ F. Adiponectin as a biomarker of systemic inflammatory response in smoker patients with stable and exacerbation phases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Scandinavian J Clin Lab Investigat. 2009;69(2):219-24.

Jung JY, Oh CM, Choi JM, Ryoo JH, Chung PW, Hong HP et al. Levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and their relation to incident metabolic syndrome. Cardiology. 2019;143(1):224-31.

Bae MS, Han JH, Kim JH, Kim YJ, Lee KJ, Kwon KY. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and pulmonary function. Korean J Family Med. 2012;33(2):70-8.

Ford ES, Cunningham TJ, Mercado CI. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of national health and nutrition examination survey 2007–2010. Journal of diabetes. 2014;6(6):603-13.

Yeh F, Dixon AE, Marion S, Schaefer C, Zhang Y, Best LG et al. Obesity in adults is associated with reduced lung function in metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the Strong Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(10):2306-13.






Original Research Articles