Lack of nitric oxide bioavailability in early pregnancy predisposes to dyslipidemia and surges preeclampsia and fetal growth retardation
Keywords:Preeclampsia, Nitric oxide, Hyperlipidemia, Low birth weight, Endothelial dysfunction, Magnesium sulphate
Background: Hyperlipidemia has been reported in preeclampsia (PrE) and is linked to poor pregnancy outcome and long-term cardiovascular complications. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and blood lipids levels during normal pregnancy and in NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) - induced preeclampsia before and after magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) therapy and its effect on the pregnancy outcome.
Methods: Forty female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: non pregnant (NP) group - non pregnant healthy rats receiving no treatment, control pregnant (Con-P) group - control pregnant rats receiving no treatment, pregnant (PE) group - pregnant animals with untreated PrE, and the pregnant MgSO4 (PE-Mg) group - pregnant animals with PrE- treated with MgSO4. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME was used to induce experimental model of PrE in the PE and the PE-Mg groups. The changes in total NO production, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL-C), high density lipoproteins (HDL), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR1) also known as sFlt-1, blood pressure, kidney functions, body weight, and pregnancy outcome were assessed.
Results: Decreased NO production in the PE group was associated with elevated TC, TG, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hypertension, proteinuria, increased urea, creatinine, and sFlt-1 levels, and poor pregnancy outcome demonstrated by high pup mortality rate and low birth weight. Increased NO production in the PE-Mg group treated with MgSO4 therapy was associated with decreased signs of preeclampsia and hypolipidemia and increased pup viability and birth weight.
Conclusions: NO bioavailability is crucial for the homeostasis of the lipid profile in normal pregnancy and the prevention of preeclampsia. Routine periodic assessments of the blood lipid profile and the NO production in the pregnant females may be a helpful tool in early prediction of preeclampsia.
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