Clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and management of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a review
Keywords:Adolescent, Bipolar disorder, Children
Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes serious disabilities in both social and work function. The occurrence of this disorder in children and adolescent age group has gained the attention of research workers since the 20th century. The varied clinical presentation of this disorder in comparison to the adult population, as well as the management approaches have been a matter of debate for ages. The aim of the study was to put forward the diagnostic and treatment approaches of bipolar disorder in children and adolescent.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Mood disorders: historical introduction and Conceptional overview. Kaplan And Sadock’s Comprehensive textbook of Psychiatry. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins and Wolter Kluwer Health; 2017.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Mood disorders: historical introduction and Conceptional overview. Kaplan And Sadock’s Comprehensive textbook of Psychiatry. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins and Wolter Kluwer Health; 2015.
Washburn JJ, West AE, Heil JA. Treatment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review. Minerva Psichiatr. 2011;52(1):21-35.
Blader JC, Carlson GA. Increased rates of bipolar disorder diagnoses among U.S. child, adolescent, and adult inpatients, 1996-2004. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62(2):107-14.
Schulze TG. Genetic research into bipolar disorder: the need for a research framework that integrates sophisticated molecular biology and clinically informed phenotype characterization. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010;33(1):67-82.
AACAP official action. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(1):138-57.
National Institute of Mental Health research roundtable on prepubertal bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(8):871-8.
Pfeifer JC, Welge J, Strakowski SM, Adler CM, Bello MP. Meta-analysis of amygdala volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(11):1289-98.
Angst J, Marneros A. Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: conception, birth and rebirth. J Affect Disord. 2001;67(1-3):3-19.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Mood disorders: historical introduction and Conceptional overview. Kaplan And Sadock’s Comprehensive textbook of Psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins and Wolter Kluwer Health; 2009: 1716-1719.
American Psychiatric Association. Bipolar and related disorders. Desk reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
Perlis RH, Dennehy EB, Miklowitz DJ, Delbello MP, Ostacher M, Calabrese JR, et al. Retrospective age at onset of bipolar disorder and outcome during two-year follow-up: results from the STEP-BD study. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11(4):391-400.
Birmaher B, Axelson D, Goldstein B, Strober M, Gill MK, Hunt J, et al. Four-year longitudinal course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders: the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(7):795-804.
Diler RS. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Global Perspective. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2007.
Axelson D, Birmaher B, Strober M, Gill MK, Valeri S, Chiappetta L, et al. Phenomenology of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(10):1139-48.
Axelson DA, Birmaher B, Strober MA, Goldstein BI, Ha W, Gill MK, et al. Course of subthreshold bipolar disorder in youth: diagnostic progression from bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50(10):1001-16.
Joshi G, Wilens T. Comorbidity in pediatric bipolar disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009;18(2):291-319.
Kowatch RA, Fristad M, Birmaher B, Wagner KD, Findling RL, Hellander M, et al. Treatment guidelines for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44(3):213-35.
Biederman J, Faraone S, Mick E, Wozniak J, Chen L, Ouellette C, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and juvenile mania: an overlooked comorbidity? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996;35(8):997-1008.
Aman MG, Smedt G, Derivan A, Lyons B, Findling RL, Risperidone Disruptive Behavior Study Group. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage intelligence. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(8):1337-46.
Croonenberghs J, Fegert JM, Findling RL, Smedt G, Dongen S, Risperidone Disruptive Behavior Study Group. Risperidone in children with disruptive behavior disorders and subaverage intelligence: a 1-year, open-label study of 504 patients. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44(1):64-72.
Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Murphy J, Tsuang MT. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disorders: issues of overlapping symptoms. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(12):1793-9.
Sachs GS, Baldassano CF, Truman CJ, Guille C. Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with early- and late-onset bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(3):466-8.
Renk K, White R, Lauer BA, McSwiggan M, Puff J, Lowell A. Bipolar disorder in children. Psychiatry J. 2014;2014:928685.
Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mennin D, Wozniak J, Spencer T. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with bipolar disorder: a familial subtype? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(10):1378-87.
Carlson GA. Classification issues of bipolar disorders in childhood. Psychiatr Dev. 1984;2(4):273-85.
Kovacs M, Pollock M. Bipolar disorder and comorbid conduct disorder in childhood and adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34(6):715-23.
Harpold TL, Wozniak J, Kwon A, Gilbert J, Wood J, Smith L, et al. Examining the association between pediatric bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders in psychiatrically referred children and adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2005;88(1):19-26.
Chang K, Adleman NE, Dienes K, Simeonova DI, Menon V, Reiss A. Anomalous prefrontal-subcortical activation in familial pediatric bipolar disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(8):781-92.
Gracious BL, Chirieac MC, Costescu S, Finucane TL, Youngstrom EA, Hibbeln JR. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of flax oil in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2010;12(2):142-54.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Bipolar disorder: assessment and management: Clinical Guidance 185, 2016. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg185. Accessed on 21 August 2021.
West AE, Henry DB, Pavuluri MN. Maintenance model of integrated psychosocial treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder: A pilot feasibility study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46(2):205-12.
Fristad MA. Psychoeducational treatment for school-aged children with bipolar disorder. Dev Psychopathol. 2006;18(4):1289-306.
Miklowitz DJ, Chang KD, Taylor DO, George EL, Singh MK, Schneck CD, et al. Early psychosocial intervention for youth at risk for bipolar I or II disorder: a one-year treatment development trial. Bipolar Disord. 2011;13(1):67-75.
Goldstein TR, Axelson DA, Birmaher B, Brent DA. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder: a 1-year open trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46(7):820-30.
Hlastala SA, Kotler JS, McClellan JM, McCauley EA. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder: treatment development and results from an open trial. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27(5):457-64.