The metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study


  • Pankaj J. Akholkar Department of Medicine, GMERS Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
  • Amita A. Gandhi Department of Medicine, GMERS Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
  • Chirag M. Shah Department of Medicine, GMERS Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India



Metabolic syndrome, Hypertension, Risk factors


Background: Hypertension is the key component of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Insulin resistance is regarded as the underlying pathophysiological basis of the clustering metabolic abnormalities associated with the MS. Increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients might be partially attribute to metabolic disturbance. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components among hypertensive patients using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria in a tertiary healthcare centre in Ahmedabad.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 200 patients with high blood pressure (aged ≥20 years) Informed written consent was taken. The following measurements were taken: blood pressure; Body Mass Index (BMI); waist and hip circumferences; plasma glucose, lipid levels; High blood pressure criterion: average systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg; Metabolic Syndrome diagnosis according to NCEP ATP III criterion.

Results: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 44.5% (n=89) inpatients of hypertension. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women 62.92% (n=56) as compared to men 37.08% (n=33). The most common abnormality found was obesity (high waist circumference), seen in 91.01% (n=81), followed by low HDL-C in 40.5% (n=72) an abnormal triglyceride level in 32% (n=69) and abnormal FBS 34% (n=65). Amongst all females 92.4% (n=98) had an abnormal HDL-C levels followed by an abnormal waist circumference in 52.38% (n=55). Incidence of abnormal FBS and TG in females were 30.5% (n=33) and 32.4% (n=35) respectively.

Conclusions: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is high among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. This underscores the importance of routine screening of hypertensive patients for other cardiovascular risk factors. 


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Original Research Articles