Cardiovascular manifestations of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning and their impact on survival
Keywords:Celphos, AlP, Cardiac poison, Cardiovascular, Survival
Background: Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a common suicidal poison with a high mortality rate due to its cardiovascular impact and lack of antidote. The aim of the study was to describe the electrocardiographic changes and other cardio-vascular manifestations in acute AlP poisoning and evaluate its impact on survival outcomes.
Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital including patients who presented with acute AlP ingestion in any form. Patients’ vitals and ECG at the time of admission were taken and outcomes of survival were identified. A descriptive study of echocardiography was also done. The clinical parameters were correlated with the survival outcomes.
Results: Fifty patients were included with 30 males and 20 females. The consumption of AlP in tablet form caused more hemodynamic compromise (hypotension and high anion gap metabolic acidosis) as compared to the powder form. ECG changes were seen in 42% of the cases, the most common finding was prolonged QTc interval (26%). The mortality was 30%. Hypotension, bradycardia, and QRS widening were found to be significant predictors of mortality (p<0.05). Echocardiography was performed for 10 patients, of which, one had right ventricular dysfunction and two had left ventricular dysfunction.
Conclusions: AlP tablets are more lethal and hemodynamically compromising than AlP powder. Hypotension, bradycardia, and QRS widening are significant predictors of mortality. Direct cardiotoxicity leads to ECG changes, of which, QTc prolongation is the most common.
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