DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20150550

Effect of long term supplementation of active garlic allicin in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive subjects

Kshitij Bhardwaj, Manish Kumar Verma, Narsingh Verma, Shipra Bhardwaj, Saumya Mishra

Abstract


Background: Researchers all over the world have independently shown the effect of allicin in reducing blood pressure depends on its extraction and concentration. Among the active constituents in garlic, the principal component is allicin. It is not present in the intact garlic clove but is produced together with pyruvate and ammonia from the odourless precursor alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) in the presence of the enzyme alliinase; Allin and allinase are found in different compartments of the garlic clove and are brought into contact to produce allicin only by cutting or crushing the clove. If garlic is processed and extracted, using oil, the activity of the sulphur compounds is sealed which could not be readily used by the body. Study aim to use pure raw and active form of sulphur from garlic and observe the effect of associated allicin on hypertensive subjects.

Methods: Extracted active sulphur chemicals and allicin from garlic by crushing fresh garlic cloves using water as extracting medium. Raw crushed 25 gm. garlic clove with water was given twice daily to 100 hypertensive subjects, 60 males and 40 females of 30-55 years of age for the period of six months. Health records of each subjects was individually maintained. Blood pressure was measured initially, after three months and finally after six months. Statistically comparison was made between initial, three months and six months blood pressure data of the subjects.

Results: This simple extraction method produce allicin yield of 100%, which reduced up to 10% (5mmHg) systolic and diastolic Blood pressure in subjects who were supplemented with garlic–allicin paste.

Conclusions: Extraction quality and activity of allicin is dependent of mode of processing and extraction medium. Garlic is a basic food that augments the body health and lowers blood pressure as well as blood cholesterol. Garlic is an ideal herb for several cardiovascular supplements. It would be of value to further examine these effects of allicin in humans with hypertension. Future research will enable in vivo measurement of allicin and its pharmacological properties; physiological effects and mechanisms of action should be investigated further.


Keywords


Garlic, Allicin, Hypertension, Cardiovascular system, Blood pressure

Full Text:

PDF

References


Elkayam A, Peleg E, Grossman E, Shabtay Z, Sharabi Y. Effects of Allicin on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Isr Med Assoc J. 2013;15(3):170-3.

Agarwal KC. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res Rev 1996;16:111-24.

Berthold HK, Sudhop T, and von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;279:1900-2.

Gadkari JV, Joshi VD. Effect of ingestion of raw garlic on serum cholesterol level, clotting time and fibrinolytic activity in normal subjects. J Postgrad Med. 1991;37:128-31.

Harenberg J, Giese C, Zimmermann R. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis. 1988;74:247-9.

Lawson LD, Ransom DK, Hughes BG. Inhibition of whole blood platelet aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products. Thromb Res. 1992;65:141-56.

Neil A, Silagy C. Garlic: its cardio-protective properties. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1994;5:6-10.

Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:599-605.

Freeman F, Kodera Y. Garlic chemistry: stability of (S)-(2-propenyl) 2-propene-1 sulfinothioate (Allicin) in blood, solvents, and simulated physiological fluids, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1995;43(9):2332-8.

Cavallito CJ, Bailey JH. Allicin, the antibacterial principle of Allium sativum. Isolation, physical properties and antibacterial action, Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1944;66(11):1950-1.

Antithrombotic organosulfur compounds from garlic: structural, mechanistic and synthetic studies, Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1986;108(22):7045-55.

Block E, Ahmad S, Catalfamo JL, Jain MK, Apitz-Castro R. The chemistry of alkyl thiosulfinate esters. Antithrombotic organosulfur compounds from garlic: structural, mechanistic and synthetic studies, Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1986;108(22):7045-55.

Koch HP, Lawson LD. Garlic: The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species 2nd Ed: 329 William and Wilkins Baltimore, MD, 1996.

Neil A, Silagy C. Garlic: its cardio-protective properties. Curr Opin Lipidol 1994;5:6-10.

Yin Lu, Zhuojin He, Xiuying Shen, Xiaolu Xu, Jie Fan, Shaohua Wu and Deyong Zhang. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Allicin on Hypercholesterolemic ICR Mice Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2012, Article ID 489690, 6 pages.

Block, E. Garlic and Other Alliums—the Lore and The Science; RSC publishing: Cambridge, UK, 2010.

Jan Borlinghaus, Frank Albrecht, Martin C. H. Gruhlke, Ifeanyi D. Nwachukwu and Alan J. Slusarenko; Allicin: Chemistry and Biological Properties, Molecules 2014, 19, 12591-12618.

Ilić D, Nikolić V, Nikolić L, Stanković M, Stanojević L, Cakić M. Allicin and relatedcompounds: Biosynthesis, synthesis and pharmacological activity. Facta Univ. Phys. Chem. Technol. 2011, 9, 9–20.