Lateral medullary syndrome: an unwanted ischemia to identify early


  • Priyadarshi Prajjwal Bharati Vidyapeeth Hospital & Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Pugazhendi Inban Government Medical College, Omandurar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Abhijit Nagre Topiwala National Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • Mujtaba Hussain Shah Department of Biomedical Sciences, Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine, Provo, Utah, United States
  • Ansh Chaudhary Bharati Vidyapeeth Hospital & Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Raunak Ranjan Bharati Vidyapeeth Hospital & Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Bhupendra Chaudhary Department of Neurosciences, Jaswant Rai Speciality Hospital, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India



Wallenburg, Lateral medulla, Stroke, Vertebral artery, Horner’s syndrome


Lateral medullary syndrome also referred to as Wallenberg syndrome, posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) syndrome, or vertebral artery syndrome is a cluster of neurological symptoms and signs brought on by obstructions in the blood vessels supplying the medulla, which causes ischemia or infarction of the brainstem. The vertebral artery or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery are the arteries most frequently affected with lateral medullary syndrome. The most prevalent symptom is transient ischemic attack (TIA) with dizziness or vertigo and atherosclerosis in the posterior cerebral circulation being the most common cause. Lateral Medullary Syndrome patients suffer from strokes or infarction and also present with vomiting, nausea, gait impairment, instability, hoarseness, and swallowing difficulties. Depending on the particular nuclei and fibers involved, different indications will appear. CT/MRI imaging is used to diagnose conditions. The majority of management is supportive, including risk factor reduction for additional ischemia events as well as speech and occupational therapy following an acute intervention. In this review article, we discuss the etiopathogenesis and factors leading to lateral medullary syndrome along with a comprehensive discussion on its clinical features, challenges in diagnosis, and treatment.


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Review Articles