Effect of method and concentration of titanium dioxide addition on anti-biofilm ability in extraoral maxillofacial prosthetic fungus


  • Teguh Tri Widodo Faculty of Dentistry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Widowati Siswomiharjo Faculty of Dentistry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Siti Sunarintyas Faculty of Dentistry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Dedy Kusuma Yulianto Faculty of Dentistry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia




Polyurethane plate, Titanium dioxide, surface coating, Biofilm, Candida albicans


Background: One of the efforts to prevent adhesion and biofilm colonization on the material surface is to improve its properties by using Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles. TiO₂ nanoparticles have antimicrobial properties, especially against the fungus Candida albicans as it has photocatalytic properties that can inhibit the growth of the fungal colonies. The present study aimed to determine the effect of applying TiO₂ to polyurethane plates on the growth of Candida albicans fungal biofilms.

Methods: This study applied a laboratory experimental design. The subjects were divided into two groups which included the treatment and control groups. In the treatment group, there were two treatments consisting of the addition of TiO₂ filler (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and the material surface coating group with TiO₂  (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Candida albicans was cultured and grown to form biofilms on polyurethane plates in each group.

Results: The results of the statistical analysis obtained through Welch's One Way Anova showed that there was a significant difference in the number of Candida albicans colonies between the treatment and control groups (P<0.05). Treatment with 4% TiO₂ surface coating showed the lowest number of Candida albicans colonies.

Conclusions: Coating the surface of the material with TiO₂ on a polyurethane plate was able to inhibit the formation of Candida albicans biofilms.


Herford AS, Miller M, Signorino F. Maxillofacial Defects and the Use of Growth Factors. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin. 2017;29(1):75-88.

Sitalaksmi RM, Ari MD, Mundiratri K, Sanjaya RAA, Pramesti TR, Dahlan A. Surgical obturator as an immediate prosthesis post hemimaxillectomy of palatal squamous cell carcinoma: A case report. J Int Oral Health. 2022;14(5):524.

Elbashti ME, Itamiya T, Aswehlee AM, Sumita YI, Ella B, Naveau A. Augmented Reality for Interactive Visualization of 3D Maxillofacial Prosthetic Data. Int J Prosthodont. 2020;33:680-3.

Cobein MV, Coto NP, Junior OC, Lemos JBD, Vieira LM, Pimentel ML, et al. Retention systems for extraoral maxillofacial prosthetic implants: a critical review. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;55(8):763-9.

Lyu L, Li D, Chen Y, Tian Y, Pei J. Dynamic chemistry based self-healing of asphalt modified by diselenide-crosslinked polyurethane elastomer. Constr Build Mater. 2021;293:123480.

Zhang G, Yin T, Nian G, Suo Z. Fatigue-resistant polyurethane elastomer composites. Extreme Mech Lett. 2021;48:101434.

Açarı İK, Boran F, Kolak S, Tatlıcı E, Yeşilada Ö, Köytepe S, et al. Preparation of 10-undecenoic acid based polyurethane/PCL fibers by electrospinning method and investigation of their antifungal properties. Polym Bull. 2022;79(10):9179-97.

Azmy E, Alkholy MR, Helal MA. Microbiological evaluation for antifungal activity of some metal oxides nanofillers incorporated into cold cured soft lining materials: clinical based study. Braz Dent Sci. 2022;25(1).

Khan ST, Al-Khedhairy AA, Musarrat J, Ahamed M. Application of nanoparticles in oral hygiene. Biomater Tissue Eng Bull. 2016;3:35-49.

Liu C, Qian J, Ye Y, Zhou H, Sun CJ, Sheehan C, et al. Oxygen evolution reaction over catalytic single-site Co in a well-defined brookite TiO2 nanorod surface. Nat Catal. 2021;4(1):36-45.

Guo Q, Zhou C, Ma Z, Yang X. Fundamentals of TiO2 photocatalysis: concepts, mechanisms, and challenges. Adv Mater. 2019;31(50):1901997.

Low J, Dai B, Tong T, Jiang C, Yu J. In situ irradiated X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation on a direct Z-scheme TiO2/CdS composite film photocatalyst. Adv Mater. 2019;31(6):1802981.

Meng A, Zhang L, Cheng B, Yu J. Dual cocatalysts in TiO2 photocatalysis. Adv Mater. 2019;31(30):1807660.

Azizi-Lalabadi M, Ehsani A, Divband B, Alizadeh-Sani M. Antimicrobial activity of Titanium dioxide and Zinc oxide nanoparticles supported in 4A zeolite and evaluation the morphological characteristic. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):1-10.

Alrahlah A, Fouad H, Hashem M, Niazy AA, AlBadah A. Titanium oxide (TiO2)/ polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base nanocomposites: mechanical, viscoelastic and antibacterial behavior. Materials. 2018;11(7):1096.

Putranti DT, Fadilla A. Titanium Dioxide Addition to Heat Polymerized Acrylic Resin Denture Base Effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. J Indones Dent Assoc. 2018;1(1).

Hsieh YP, Wu YH, Cheng SM, Lin FK, Hwang DY, Jiang SS, et al. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis for oncogenic mechanisms underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma carcinogenesis with Candida albicans infection. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(9):4833.

Haghighi F, Roudbar Mohammadi S, Mohammadi P, Hosseinkhani S, Shipour R. Antifungal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and EDTA on Candida albicans biofilms. Infect Epidemiol Microbiol. 2013;1(1):33-8.

Pessoa RS, Fraga MA. Chapter 11 - Biomedical applications of ultrathin atomic layer deposited metal oxide films on polymeric materials. In: Benelmekki M, Erbe A, editors. Frontiers of Nanoscience. Elsevier; 2019: 291-307.






Original Research Articles