Hormonal therapy for aging process in women


  • Muhammad Fidel Ganis Ganis Siregar Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Fertility, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia


Aging process, Hormonal therapy


Aging is a natural process that continues over time. This process beginswith fertilization and experienced by all living things, with different manifestation between each person. Since time immemorial, mankind has been concerned with the development and maintenance of their youth, slowing the aging process, and prolonging life. Currently, there are major advances for understanding the aging process in an attempt to delay it. Some scientific literature shows that supplementation with hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, growth hormone, and thyroid hormones have the potential to improve the quality of life and prevent many symptoms and conditions associated with aging, including fatigue, depression, weight gain, weakness, osteoporosis, loss of libido, and cardiovascular disease. There are doubts about the side effects of long term use of hormonal therapy, including increased risk of cancer. Because hormone levels declines with aging, hormone treatment has been referred to as the "fountain of youth”. Many studies were conducted to prove the efficacy of hormonal therapy, but only partial data has shown the expected positive effects of the hormone on aging.


Goldman R, Klatz. The new anti-aging revolution. In: Goldman R, Klatz, eds. A Book. 4th ed. Australia Australian Publication; 2003: 22-24, 191-194.

Turner dan Helms. Lifespan development. In: Turner dan Helms, eds. A Book. 4th ed. USA: Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc.; 1991.

Muggleton-harris AL, Reisert PS, Burghoff RC. In vitro characterization of response to stimulus (wounding) with regard to ageing in human skin fibroblasts. Mech Ageing Dev. 1982;19:37-43.

Martant F. Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. In: Martant F, eds. A Book. 6th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin-Cummings; 2004.

Fenske NA, Lober CW. Structural and functional changes of normal aging skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:571-85.

Usaha Nasional Oswari E. Menyongsong usia lanjut dengan bugar dan bahagia. In: Usaha Nasional Oswari E, eds. A Book. 1st ed. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan; 1997.

Klentze Michael. The new science of anti-aging hormone replacement therapy: a multidimensional approach in anti-aging medical therapeutics. Am Acad Anti-Aging Med. 2003;5:405-24.

Schwartz, Erika, Kent Holtorf. Hormone replacement therapy in the geriatric patient: current state of the evidence and questions for the future. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and thyroid hormone augmentation in geriatric clinical practice: part 1. Clin Geriatr Med. 2011;4(4):542-59.

Kamel, Nabil S, Julie Gammack, Oscar Cepeda, Joseph H. Faherty. Antioxidants and hormones as antiaging therapies: high hopes, disappointing results. Cleveland Clin J Med. 2006;73(12):1049-56.

Rhoden Luis Ernani, Abraham Morgentaler. Risks of testosterone-replacement therapy and recommendations for monitoring. N Engl J Med. 2004:350:482-92.

Giordano Roberta, Lorenza Bonelli, Ellisa Marinazzo, Ezio Ghigo, Emanuella Arvat. Growth hormone treatment in human aging: benefits and risks. Hormones. 2008;7(2):133-9.

Handlesmen David J. Testosterone: use, misuse and abuse. Med J Austr. 2006;185(8):436-9.

Nair KS, Rizza RA, O’Brien P, Dhatariya K, Short KR, Nehra A, et al. DHEA in elderly women and DHEA or testosterone in elderly men. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1647-59.

Liu H, Bravata DM, Olkin I, Nayak S, Roberts B, Garber AM, et al. Systematic review: the safety and efficacy of growth hormone in the healthy elderly. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jan;146(2):104-15.

Sastrawinata S. Klimakterium dan menopause. In: Wiknjosastro H, Saifuddin AB, eds. Ilmu Kandungan. 5th ed. Jakarta: Yayasan Bina Pustaka Prawiroharjo; 2007.

MIMS Indonesia. Levonorgestrel, 2015. Available at: https://www.mimsonline.com/id/Search/Search.aspx.

MIMS Indonesia. Medroxyprogesterone, 2015. Available at: https://www.mimsonline.com/id/Search/Search.aspx.

MIMS Indonesia. Norethisterone, 2015. Available at: https://www.mimsonline.com/id/Search/Search.aspx.

MIMS Indonesia. Progesterone, 2015. Available at: https://www.mimsonline.com/id/Search/Search.aspx.

MIMS. Medrogestone, 2015. Available at: https://www.mimsonline.com/id/Search/Search.aspx.

Clapauch R, Mattos TM, Silva P, Marinheiro LP, Buksman S, Schrank Y. Total estradiol, rather than testosterone levels, predicts osteoporosis in aging men. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Nov;53(8):1020-5.

Affandi B. Masalah kesehatan pada menopause - Panduan menopause. In: Affandi B, eds. Edisi Pertama. Pokja Endokrinologi Reproduksi. POGI/PERMI. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FK UI; 1997.






Review Articles