Study the components of metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia

Manoj Lokhande, Kinjalka Ghosh, Avinash Jadhao


 Background: Long term health implications in women who develop hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. So based on this the present study was undertaken to investigate parameters of metabolic syndrome in normal pregnant and preeclamptic women.

Methods: Serum HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fasting blood sugar levels and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were estimated in 100 normal pregnant women (controls) and 100 pregnant women with preeclampsia (cases) and comparison between cases and age matched controls of age group 18-35 years done using ‘z’ test. Study was carried out between 2011 to 2015. All statistical analyses were performed using GRAPH PAD PRISM version 5.00 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software.

Results: Serum triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar levels and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) while high density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) in preeclamptic group than in control group.

Conclusions: Serum triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar levels and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) while high density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) in preeclamptic group than in control group.


Blood pressure, Fasting blood sugar, HDL, Metabolic syndrome, Preeclampsia, Triglyceride

Full Text:



Berg CJ, Chang J, Callaghan WM. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States 1991-1997. Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;101(2):289-96.

Berg CJ, Harper MA, Arkinson SM. Preventability of pregnancy related deaths. Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;106(6):1228-34.

De J, Mukhopadhyay AK, Saha PK. Study of serum lipid profile in pregnancy induced hypertension. Indian J Clinic Biochem. 2006;21(2):165-8.

Enquobahrie DA, Williams MA, Butler CL, et al. Maternal plasma lipid concentration in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17(7):574-81.

Gractacose E, Casals E, Gomez O. Increased susceptibility to low density lipoprotein oxidation in women with a history of preclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;110(4):400-4.

Prism 5 for Windows. Graph Pad software. Version 5.00. Available at http:/ / /scientific-software/prism/ Accessed on 12 March 2007.

Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD. Pre-eclampsia and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in later life: Systemic review and Meta-analysis. Br Med J. 2007;335(7627):974-74.

Redman CW, Sacks GP, Sargent IL. Pre-eclampsia: an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(21):499-506.

Sattar N, Bendomir A, Berry C. Lipoprotein subfraction concentrations in preeclampsia: Pathogenic parallels to atherosclerosis. Obstet Gynaecol 1997;89(3):403-8.

Haukkamaa L, Salminen M, Laivuori H, et al. Risk for subsequent coronary artery disease after preeclampsia. Am J Cardiol. 2004;93(6):805-8.

Ramsay JE, Stewart F, Green IA. Microvascular dysfunction: a link between pre-eclampsia and maternal coronary heart disease. BJOG. 2003;110(11):1029-33.

Wilson BJ, Watson MS, Prescott GJ. Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and risk of hypertension and stroke in later life: results from cohort study. British Med J. 2003;326(7394):845.

Maksane S, Ranka R, Maksane N. Study of serum lipid profile and magnesium in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia: A case control study. Asian J Biochem. 2011;1815-9923.

Cekmen MB, Erbagci AB, Balat A. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in pregnancy induced hypertension. Clin Biochem. 2003;36(7):575-8.

Howlader MZH, Kabir Y, Khan TA. Plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in preeclamptic and uncomplicated pregnancies in Bangladesh. J Med Sci. 2007;7(8):1276-82.

Baksu B, Baksu A, Gulbaba G. Lipoprotein(a) levels in women with pre-eclampsia and in normotensive pregnant women. J Obst Gynae Res. 2005;31(3):277-82.

Jauregui WS, Sanchez SE, Zhang C, et al. Plasma lipid concentrations in pre-eclamptic and normotensive Peruvian women. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1999;67(3):147-55.

Chiang AN, Yang ML, Hung JH. Alterations of serum lipid levels and their biological relevances during and after pregnancy. Life Sci. 1995;56(26):2367-75.

Adegoke OA, lyare EE, Gbenebitse SO. Fasting plasma glucose and cholesterol levels in pregnant Nigerian women. Niger. Postgraduate Med J. 2003;10(1):32-6.

Belo L, Caslake M, Gaffney D. Changes in LDL size and HDL concentration in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Atherosclerosis. 2002;162(2):425-32.

Kaaja R, Laivuori H, Laakso M. Evidence of a state of increased insulin resistance in preeclampsia. Metabolism. 1999;48(7):892-6.

Mikhail MS, Basu J, Palan PR, et al. Lipid profile in women with pre-eclampsia relationship between plasma triglyceride levels and severity of pre-eclampsia. J Assoc Acad Minor Phys. 1995;6(1):43-5.

Kokia E, Barkai G, Reichman B. Maternal serum lipid profile in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. J Perinat Med. 1990;18(6):473-8.

Rubina A, Tabassum M. Pre-eclampsia and lipid profile. Pakistan J Med Sci. 2007;23(5):751-4.

Karl W, Birgit W, Michael MH. Triglyceride rich lipoproteins are associated with hypertension in preeclampsia. J Clinic Endocrino Metabolism. 2003;88(3):1162-6.

Ozdemir O, Coşkun A, Kılınç M. To evaluate the role of lipid profile in the etiopathogenesis of mild and severe preeclampsia. Perinatal J. 2008;16(3):75-81.

Arbogast BW, Leeper SC, Merrick RD. Which plasma factors bring about disturbance of endothelial function in pre-eclampsia? Lancet. 1994;343(8893):340-1.

Hubel CA, Lyall F, Weissfeld L. Small low-density lipoproteins and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are increased in association with hyperlipidemia in preeclampsia. Metabolism. 1998;47(10):1281-8.

Islam NAF, Chowdhury MAR, Kibria GM. Study of serum lipid profile in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Faridpur Med Coll J. 2010;5(2):56-9.

Hauth JC, Clifton RG, Roberts JM. Maternal insulin resistance and preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(4):327.

Khan KS, Daya S. Plasma glucose and pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1996;53(2):111-6.

Stefanovic M, Vukomanovic P, Milosavljevic M. Insulin resistance and C reactive e protein in preeclampsia. Bosnian Journal Basic Med Sci. 2009;9(3):236-8.

Barden AE, Beilin LJ, Ritchie J. Does a predisposition to the metabolic syndrome sensitize women to develop pre-eclampsia? J Hypertens. 1999;17(9):1307-15.

Negrato CA, Jovanovic L, Tambascia MA. Association between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and hypertension in pregnancy. Metabolic Syn Related Disorder. 2009;7(1):53-9.

Grundy SM, Brewer HB, Cleeman JI. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the national heart, lung, and blood institute/American heart association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation. 2004;109(3):433-8.