DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20171050

Clinical profile, bacterial profile and outcomes of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary care hospital– one year study

Ajay Kumar Sarvepalli, Prakash Kalakappa Dharana

Abstract


Background: Bacterial meningitis is still one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity among all groups in developing countries. The mortality and prevalence of common pathogens has reduced in developing countries with implementation of successful vaccination against the pathogens. Laboratory surveillance of pathogens is crucial in formulating the empirical treatment guidelines and to identify the targets of immunization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical profile, bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the pathogens.  The outcome of the cases was recorded and followed for six months to detect any neurological sequelae.

Methods: A one year prospective cross sectional study was done and all suspected cases of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) were screened and confirmed by diagnostic criteria. Clinical features were recorded and entered into the case sheet. CSF culture was done and biochemical analysis and cell counts were performed. All the data was entered in Microsoft excel and analysed.

Results: A total of 547 cases were screened and 282 confirmed with 164 males and 116 females. 282 pathogens were isolated with 266 bacterial and 12 fungal isolates. Gram negative bacterial pathogens were predominant than gram positive. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the common isolate in the study followed by others like S. aureus, Coagulase negative staphylococci and Acinetobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and meningococci. Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp. were fungal pathogens. Community acquired meningitis was commonest cause and seen in 51-60 years of age. Gram positive pathogens exhibited maximum sensitivity to vancomycin and linezolid whereas Gram negative pathogens to carbapenems.

Conclusions: There is an overwhelming need to formulate policies in the management of cases of ABM. The rationale use of antibiotics is necessary to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. Hence minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance and its spread is necessary, which can be achieved by regular prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility studies.


Keywords


Acinetobacter sp., Acute bacterial meningitis, Antibiotic resistance, Cerebro spinal fluid, Streptococcus pneumoniae

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