A comparative study of pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers of rural population of Katihar, Bihar, India


  • Rakesh Kumar Department of Physiology, Katihar Medical College and Hospital, Katihar, Bihar, India
  • Shanker Suman Department of Medicine, Katihar Medical College and Hospital, Katihar, Bihar, India




Non-smokers, Pulmonary Function Test, Rural, Smokers


Background: In India, where majority of the population lives by agriculture and linked occupations in rural areas despite of rapid increase in urban population, the pulmonary function is expected to vary between smokers and non-smokers.

Methods: This study was carried out in the rural population of Katihar, Bihar in 100 participants. Prior consent was obtained from the Ethical committee for the study. Computerized spirometer RMS Helios 701 was used for the study.

Results: This study was done for a better understanding of effects of smoking in the rural population of Katihar. In rural non-smokers, the observed value of pulmonary functions in mean±standard deviation, FVC was 3.28±1.04 litres, FEV1 was 2.72±0.97 litres, FEV1% was 85.24±28.24, PEFR was 7.8±1.98 litres/minute, FEF25-75% was 4.28±0.99 litres. The observed value of pulmonary functions in rural smoker population in mean±standard deviation, FVC was 2.56±0.86 litres, FEV1 was 2.21±0.96 litres, FEV1% was 86.00±23.73, PEFR was 5.65±2.18 litres/minute, FEF25-75% was 3.34±1.37 litres.

Conclusions: The comparative study of pulmonary function between rural smokers and rural non-smokers showed significant decreased value (p value < 0.05) in smokers of rural population.

Author Biography

Rakesh Kumar, Department of Physiology, Katihar Medical College and Hospital, Katihar, Bihar, India



Jha P, Peto R. Global Effects of Smoking, of Quitting and of Taxing Tobacco. New England J Med. 2014;370(1):60-8.

Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M. Mortality from smoking in developed countries, 1950-2010. Oxford, United Kingdom; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, March 2012.

Peto R, Lopez AD. The future worldwide health effects of current smoking patterns. In: Koop E, Pearson CE, Schwarz MR, eds. Critical issues in global health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2001:154-61.

Jha P. Avoidable global cancer deaths and total deaths from smoking; Nat Rev Cancer. 2009;9:655-64.

WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.

Abdullah AS, Husten CG. Promotion of smoking cessation in developing countries: a framework for urgent public health interventions. Thorax. 2004;59(7):623-30.

Jindal SK, Aggarwal AN, Chaudhry K, Chhabra SK, D Souza GA, Gupta D, et al. A multicentric study on epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its relationship with tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2006;48(1):23-9.

Mhase VT, Reddy PS. Effect of smoking on lung functions of workers exposed to dust. Indian J Comm Med. 2002;27(1):26.

Gold DR, Wang X, Wypij D, Speizer FE, Ware JH, Dockery DW. Effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in adolescent boys and girls. New England J Med. 1996;335(13):931-7.

Eishaan K, Bhargava, Farah Khaliq. Effect of paternal smoking on the pulmonary functions of adolescent males. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;52(4):413-9.

Gavriely N, Nissan M, Cugell DW, Rubin AHE. Respiratory health screening using pulmonary function test and lung sound analysis; European Resp J. 1994;7:35-42.

Samet JM. A historical and epidemiologic perspective on respiratory symptoms questionnaires; Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108:435-45.

Sundblad BM, Larsson K, Nathell L. lung function testing influences the attitude towards smoking; Nicotine and Tobacco Res. 2010;12(1):37-42.






Original Research Articles