DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20172258

Ingrown toe nail as seen in Bayelsa state Nigeria

Tabowei I. Benjamin, Amaefula `Temple Ejike

Abstract


Background: Ingrown toenails are common conditions of the foot causing pain, disability, and absence from work. It has been associated with use of tight foot wears, congenital anomalies of nail folds, nail plates, and medial rotation of the great toes; other predisposing factors include diabetes, obesity and cardiac disorders. It can be diagnosed clinically, and treatments include use of antibiotics analgesia and surgery. When untreated it may be complicated by sepsis, ulceration of nail fold and excessive granulation tissue formation osteomyelitis, gangrene of the leg.

Methods: We observed an increase in the number of patients visiting our clinic with ingrown toe nails, and with no known work done on this subject in our environment we therefore conducted a questionnaire based prospective study between the periods January 2014 to June 2016 to determine the pattern of presentation, predisposing factors and treatment outcome. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS Version 20 for windows.

Results: Twenty-eight (28) patients with age range 9 to 65 years, and mean age of 32, and male: female ratio of 2.1:1 were reviewed. The highest incidence was seen between the ages of 11 to 40 year old, and among students 8 (28.57%). Prevalence of 28.57% (n=8) was highest in those who wore tight/short shoes. The commonest presenting complains were pain, swelling (edema) and suppuration, with most patients 10 (35.71%) being seen in the clinic between 5-6 months of development symptoms. Ingrown toenails occurred statistically significantly more in the right big toe 13 (46.43%) [χ2 (p-value) = 19.43 (0.001). Amongst those whose anatomical site was at the right big toe, the Lateral aspect was 9 (69.23%).

Conclusions: Most patients received Analgesics and Antibiotics and twenty one, 21(75%) of the patients had wedge resection and surgical destruction of the nail matrix.

Keywords


Big toe, Ingrown toe nail, Predisposing factors, Swelling, Suppuration, Surgical matricectomy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arie C, VanDer HAM, Cornelisa A, Hackeng H, Tik IEN, JO. The treatment of in-growing toe nails, A randomized comparism of wedge excision and phenol cauterization. Journal of Bone and Joint surgery. 1990;72(3):507-9.

Muhammad Sajj ad, Asahraf F. Ingrowing toe nail. Pak J Med Sci. 2007;23(1):150-1.

Murray WR, Bedi BS. The surgical management of in-growing toe nail. Br J surg. 1975;62:409-12.

Langford DT, Burke C, Robertson K. Risk factors in onychocryptosis. BR J Surg. 1989;76(1):45-8.

Joel J, Heidelbaugh MD, Hobert L. Management of the ingrowing toe nail. Fam Physician. 2009;79(4):303-8,311-2.

Scher RK. Teo nail disorders. ClinDermatol. 1983;1(1):114-24.

Yang KC, LI YT. Treatment of recurrent ingrown great toenail associated with granulation tissue by partial nail avulsion followed by matricectomy with sharpulse carbon dioxide laser. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28(5):419-21.

Toyblenshhlole M, Elishoov O, London E. Major complications of minor surgery. A report of two cases of critical ischemia unmasked by treatment for in-grwoing toe nail. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87 (12):1681-3.

Reyzelman AM, Trombella KA, Vayser DJ, Amstrong DG, Harkless LB. Are antibiotes necessary in the treatment of locally infected in-grown toenails? Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(9):930-2.

Burssens P, Vereeken L, Von Loon C. A randomized controlled Study of two treatments for ingrowing toenails. Acta Chir Belg. 1987;87:294-7.

Pearson HJ, Bury RN, Wapples J, Watkin DFL. In-growing toenails: is there a nail abnormality? A Prospective study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1987;69(5):840-2.

Greig JD, Anderson JH, Ireland AJ, Anderson JR. The surgical treatment of in-growing toe nails. J Bone Surg Br. 1991;73:131-3.

Sykes PA. In-growing toe nails. Time for critical approach? J R Coll Surg Edin. 1986;31:300-4.

Cameron PF. In-growing toe nails; an evaluation of two treatments. Br Med J. 1981;283:821-2.

Kuru I, Sualp T, Ferit D, Gunduz T. Factors affecting recurrence rate of ingrown toe nail treated with marginal toenail ablation. Foot Ankle Int. 2004;45(6) :410-3.

Rounding BS. surgical treatment for ingrowing toe nails. Cochrane Syst Rev. 2005;(2):158-Z60.