Ingrown toe nail as seen in Bayelsa state Nigeria


  • Tabowei I. Benjamin Department of Surgery, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri Bayelsa, Nigeria
  • Amaefula `Temple Ejike Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri Bayelsa, Nigeria



Big toe, Ingrown toe nail, Predisposing factors, Swelling, Suppuration, Surgical matricectomy


Background: Ingrown toenails are common conditions of the foot causing pain, disability, and absence from work. It has been associated with use of tight foot wears, congenital anomalies of nail folds, nail plates, and medial rotation of the great toes; other predisposing factors include diabetes, obesity and cardiac disorders. It can be diagnosed clinically, and treatments include use of antibiotics analgesia and surgery. When untreated it may be complicated by sepsis, ulceration of nail fold and excessive granulation tissue formation osteomyelitis, gangrene of the leg.

Methods: We observed an increase in the number of patients visiting our clinic with ingrown toe nails, and with no known work done on this subject in our environment we therefore conducted a questionnaire based prospective study between the periods January 2014 to June 2016 to determine the pattern of presentation, predisposing factors and treatment outcome. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS Version 20 for windows.

Results: Twenty-eight (28) patients with age range 9 to 65 years, and mean age of 32, and male: female ratio of 2.1:1 were reviewed. The highest incidence was seen between the ages of 11 to 40 year old, and among students 8 (28.57%). Prevalence of 28.57% (n=8) was highest in those who wore tight/short shoes. The commonest presenting complains were pain, swelling (edema) and suppuration, with most patients 10 (35.71%) being seen in the clinic between 5-6 months of development symptoms. Ingrown toenails occurred statistically significantly more in the right big toe 13 (46.43%) [χ2 (p-value) = 19.43 (0.001). Amongst those whose anatomical site was at the right big toe, the Lateral aspect was 9 (69.23%).

Conclusions: Most patients received Analgesics and Antibiotics and twenty one, 21(75%) of the patients had wedge resection and surgical destruction of the nail matrix.


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