Reliability of FNAC as a diagnostic tool in lymphadenopathy
Keywords:Cervical lymphadenopathy, Fine needle aspiration cytology, Metastatic diseases, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Tuberculosis
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a first line investigation modality for the evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathies. Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the most common clinical presentations affecting all age groups. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a first line investigation modality for the evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathies. Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the most common clinical presentations affecting all age groups.
Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology of Government Medical College Thiruvananthapuram over a two year. Out of 1020 aspirations 122 cases where identified and included in the study. All the diagnosis obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology was correlated with histopathology.
Results: The age of the patients ranged from seven years to seventy-eight years in which 44% were males and 56% were females. Incidence of non-neoplastic lymph node lesions was common during 2 to 4 decades. Incidence of neoplastic lymph node lesions was common during 4 to 6th decade. Reactive change and Tuberculosis were seen more common in females whereas Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and metastatic tumors were more common in males. The overall accuracy of lymph node lesions in our study was found to be 90.98%, sensitivity 84 % and specificity 95.8%.
Conclusions: Our study concluded that FNAC is simple, quick, minimally invasive technique to diagnose lymphadenopathy. The overall accuracy of lymph node lesions in our study was found to be 90.98%, sensitivity 84% and specificity 95.8%. Findings in this study are comparable and consistent with studies conducted elsewhere. The limitations of FNAC are that only positive results have clinical significance. The limitations have to be taken into account while interpreting the smears and skill has to be gained by constant practice.
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