Prospective study of renal abnormalities in HIV seropositive patients
Keywords:Edema, HIV, Nephropathy, Radiological findings, Serum creatinine
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection may lead to renal impairment, however Indian data is limited. The objective of this study was to study clinical, biochemical and radiological spectrum of renal dysfunctions in HIV patients.
Methods: Hundred HIV positive patients were studied in Department of Medicine, G.R. Medical College, Gwalior. Detailed history, clinical examination, laboratory investigation (hemoglobin, random blood sugar, CD4 counts, urine analysis (proteinuria, sugar, pus cells, red blood cells), blood urea estimation, serum creatinine and ultrasound of kidneys were done for all the patients.
Results: Mean age of the study cohort was 43.09±10.57 years with male predominance. Maximum patients belong to age group of 41-50 years (35%). Majority patients were from urban area (61%), married (86%), belong to low socioeconomic status (91%) and about one third were truck drivers (36%) by profession. Mean CD4 count was 236.14±134.006 whereas, maximum patients had CD4 count of <200 (52%). Most common clinical and radiological finding was edema (18.02% male and 29.41% female) and raised renal echotexture (15.66% male and 5.88% female) respectively. Mean hemoglobin, blood urea, serum creatinine and albumin among male and female were 11.36±11.58, and 9.65±1.90, 53.78±53.99 and 55.03±47.10, 1.33±1.03 and 1.24±0.90, 3.22±0.76 and 3.12±0.69 respectively.
Conclusions: Proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, edema and raised renal echo texture are the early markers of nephropathy in HIV positive patients.
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