Gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and foetal outcome: a clinical study

Mohan Makwana, Raj Kumar Bhimwal, Chaina Ram, S L. Mathur, Kanwar Lal, Harish Mourya


Background: Prevalence of the diabetes among pregnant women is increasing, attributable to advance maternal age, multi foetal gestation, increased body mass index, strong family history, sedentary life style, change in the diet, continued immigration. Gestational diabetes has few symptoms, commonly diagnosed by screening during pregnancy.

Methods: The present study was conducted at Department of Medicine and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur. Rajasthan, India.

Results: Out of 476 patients attending the antenatal outdoor at the Umaid Hospital, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. The prevalence of gestational diabetes in present study was 7.98%, Incidence of GDM found to increase with increasing age with maximum prevalence (10.71%) in more than 30 years age group, with increasing parity, low socioeconomic strata and in urban population. With maximum prevalence amongst higher parities (12.5%) in >G5 and higher). The incidence was higher with history of PIH (36.36%), family H/O DM (33.3%), GDM (12.12%), perinatal losses (15.15%), anomalous baby (9.09%), high BMI (67%). GDM complicate the normal course of pregnancy with increased incidence of PIH (36.4), Polyhydramnios (27.2%), infections like vaginal candidiasis (24.2%) and UTI (39.3%). The infant of diabetic mother had 12 (32.29%), 9 (26.47%), 11 (32.35%), 8 (23.53%) 5 (14.70%) and 3 (8.82%) of hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, macrosomia, congenital anomalies, birth injuries, polycythaemia, and hypocalcaemia respectively in diabetic mothers with suboptimal glycaemic control during pregnancy.

Conclusions: GDM continues to be an important obstetrical condition with significant feto-maternal morbidity. Complications in infant of diabetic mother are more common with those mothers who had poor glycaemic control.


Foetal anomaly, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Glycaemic control

Full Text:



Hadden, DR. A historical perspective on gestational diabetes. From the fourth international workshop-conference on gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care. August 1998. Volume 21 (Supplement 2), Available at

Seshiah V, Das AK, Balaji V, Joshi SR, Parikh MN, Gupta S. For diabetes in pregnancy study group (DIPSI)+gestational diabetes mellitus-guidelines. JAPI. 2008;54(8):622-8.

Garshasbi A, Faghihzadeh S, Naghizadeh MM, Ghavam M. Prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Tehran. J Family Reprod Health. 2008;2(2):75-80.

Anjalakshi C, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Ashalata S, Suganthi S, Arthi T, Thamizharasi M, Seshiah V. A single test procedure to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta diabetologica. 2009;46(1):51-4.

Hosseini M, Khodabandehloo F, Karami R, Mohammadpour T, Rajaei Z, Fereidoni M, et al. Different effects of scopolamine on memory of young male and female rats. Pharmacologyonline. 2010;3:450-8.

Gajjar F, Maitra K. Intrapartum and perinatal outcomes in women with gestational diabetes and mild gestational hyperglycaemia. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2005;55:135-7.

Goldman M, Kitzmiller JL, Abrams B, Cowan RM, Laros RK. Obstetric Complications with GDM: Effects of Maternal Weight. Diabetes. 1991;40(2): 79-82.

Bhat M, Ramesha K, Sarma S, Menon S, Sowmini C, Kumar S. Determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus: A case control study in a district tertiary care hospital in south India. Int J Diabetes Developing Countries. 2010;30(2):91.

Das V, Kamra S, Mishra A, Agarwal A, Agarwal CG. Screening for gestational diabetes and maternal and fetal outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2004;54:449-51.

Wahi P, Dogra V, Jandial K, Bhagat R, Gupta R, Gupta S, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its outcomes in Jammu region. J Assoc Physicians India. 2011;59(4):227-30.

Aagaard-Tillery KA, Spong CY, Thom E, Sibai B, Wendel G, Wenstrom K, Samuels P, et al. For the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health, Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;115(6)-1309-18.

Macneill S, Dodds L, David C, Hamilton, B, Armson A, Hof VM. Rates and risk factors for recurrence of gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24(4):659-62.

Bener A, Saleh NM, Al-Hamaq A. Prevalence of gestational diabetes and associated maternal and neonatal complications in a fast-developing community: global comparisons. International Journal Women Health. 2011:3 367-73.

Odar E, Wandabwa J, Kiondo P. Maternal and fetal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Af Health Sci. 2004;4(1):9-14.

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, McPhee AJ, Jeffries WS, Robinson JS. For the Australian carbohydrate intolerance study in pregnant women (ACHOIS) trial group. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2477-86.

Banerjee S, Ghosh US, Banerjee D. Effect of tight glycaemic control on fetal complications in diabetic pregnancies. JAPI. 2004;52:109-13.

Silva JK, Kaholokula JK, Ratner R, Mau M. Ethnic differences in perinatal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(9):2058-63.

Metzger BE, Buchanan TA, Coustan DR, De Leiva A, Dunger DB, Hadden DR, et al. Summary and recommendations of the fifth international workshop-conference on gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(2):S251-60.