DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20173069

Abdominal obesity in primary care

Sethu Prabhu Shankar, Golepu Kartikeya

Abstract


Background: Obesity is one of the important challenge in primary care. Abdominal obesity is associated with future cardiovascular disease when compared to non-obese individuals. The objective was to study the prevalence of abdominal obesity in patients attending primary care physician and to analyse abdominal obesity across different age groups and gender.

Methods: The study was done as cross-sectional study at primary care centres in and around Pondicherry. Patients visiting primary care physician were included in the study. All adult patients of age more than 18 years, of both sexes visiting the primary care physician were included in study. Pregnant women, patients with abdomen diseases and patients those who are not willing to give written consent for participation in the study were excluded from the study. Demographic profile, anthropometric measurements were recorded. Abdominal circumference of all patients were recorded using a standard measuring tape. Abdominal obesity was diagnosed when the abdominal circumference was more than 90 centimetres in male and more than 80 centimetres in female.

Results: A total number of 1030 patients were included in the study. There were 189 patients in age group 60-69. Females 535 outnumbered males 484. In the age group 50-59, 33 (40%) of males and 45 (44%) of females had increased abdominal circumference more than 90 centimetres in males and 80 centimetres in females. Across all age groups 121 (24%) males had abdominal circumference more than 90 centimetres in the study and 147 (28%) females had abdominal circumference more than 80 centimetres.

Conclusions: Abdominal obesity is common at primary care level. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is more in females when compared with males. Hence all primary care physicians have to be stressed about the importance of abdominal obesity.

 


Keywords


Abdominal obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Primary care

Full Text:

PDF

References


Pradeepa R, Anjana RM, Joshi SR, Bhansali A, Deepa M, Joshi PP, et al. Prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in urban and rural India-the ICMR-INDIAB Study (Phase-I)[ICMR-INDIAB-3]. Indian J Med Res. 2015;142(2):139-150.

Wang Y, Xue H, Liu S. Applications of Systems Science in Biomedical Research Regarding Obesity and Noncommunicable Chronic Diseases: Opportunities, Promise, and Challenges. Advances in Nutrition: An International Rev J. 2015;6(1):88-95.

Dixon JB, Egger GJ, Finkelstein EA, Kral JG, Lambert GW. Obesity paradox misunderstands the biology of optimal weight throughout the life cycle. Inter J Obes. 2015;39(1):82-4.

Abdelaal M, le Roux CW, Docherty NG. Morbidity and mortality associated with obesity. Annals of translational medicine. 2017;5(7).

Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A and Murray CJL. Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004;1:497-596.

Zaki M, Robaayah Z, Chan SP, Vadivale M, Lim TO. Malaysia Shape of the Nation (MySoN): a primary care based study of abdominal obesity in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2010;65(Suppl A):143-9.

WHO. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 894. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.

Hauner H, Bramlage P, Lösch C, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Schunkert H, Wasem J, et al. Prevalence of obesity in primary care using different anthropometric measures–results of the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS). BMC Public Health. 2008;8(1):282.

Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309(1):71-82.

Yusuf S. Interheart Study Investigators Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Lancet. 2004;364(9438):937-52.

Morrell J, Fox KA. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in primary care: the IDEA UK study. Inter J clini Prac. 2009;63(9):1301-7.

International Diabetes Federation. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of metabolic syndrome. Brussels; 2006.

Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulat. 2005;112:2735-52.

World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva; 2008.

Raju GS, Ramya N. A study of Clinico- Demographic Profile of ST elevation MI patients. MedPulse- Int Med J. 2016;3(2):159-63.

Shankar SP, Ramya N. A study on QT dispersion and thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiovascular Res. 2010;7(2).

Deepa M, Farooq S, Deepa R, Manjula D, Mohan V. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(2):259-67.

Prasad DS, Kabir Z, Dash AK, Das BC. Abdominal obesity, an independent cardiovascular risk factor in Indian subcontinent: A clinico epidemiological evidence summary. J Cardio Dis Res. 2011;2(4):199-205.

De Schutter A, Lavie CJ, Milani RV. The impact of obesity on risk factors and prevalence and prognosis of coronary heart disease-the obesity paradox. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2014;56(4):401-8.

Hu J, Yang S, Zhang A, Yang P, Cao X, Li X, Goswami R, Wang Y, Luo T, Liao K, Cheng Q. Abdominal obesity is more closely associated with diabetic kidney disease than general obesity. Diabet Care. 2016;39(10):e179-80.

Wang Y, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes among men. Am J Clin Nutrit. 2005;81(3):555-63.