The study of mannose receptors status in HIV-1 discordant couples
Keywords:Discordant couples, HIV-1, Mannose receptors
Background: It is more than two decades the presence of HIV virus has created a pandemic in human community. The current study was designed to study the levels of mannose receptors on vaginal epithelial cells of female partners of seronegative couple and of seronegative wife of seropositive husband.
Methods: It is a case control observational study.in the study,30 controls: seronegative couples- husband seronegative and wife seronegative and 30 cases (study group): serodiscordant couples-husband seropositive and wife seronegative were included. The gynecological examination of the female partner was carried out, both per speculum (PS) and per vaginal (PV). Any lesions or inflammation was noted. the area was cleaned, and smear was collected. The smear was immediately fixed with 1:1 ether alcohol. The gynecological examination of the female partner was carried out, both per speculum (PS) and per vaginal (PV). Any lesions or inflammation was noted. the area was cleaned, and smear was collected. The smear was immediately fixed with 1:1 ether alcohol.
Results: Although sexual mode of transmission is highest in India, large numbers of couples are serodiscordant. In this study, the discordant couples were married for an average of 19.3 years. Their youngest child had a mean age of 8.34 years. The mother being seronegative, all children were seronegative. The Husband’s qualified for ART at the time of detection of HIV status depending on their CD4 value. It means that they were harboring the virus for more than 10 years. Despite unprotected sex, the virus was not transmitted to the wife. Search for alternate pathway of HIV entry through vaginal mucosa showed: The females in control group revealed >98% epithelial cells had mannose receptors in almost all the females. As against serodiscordant females had mannose receptors in < 10% vaginal epithelial cells. There is a significant difference (p<0.01) between the control group and study group. Thus, the absence of mannose receptors probably prevents the HIV transmission.
Conclusions: This observation will be helpful in developing effective microbicide and will open new frontiers for drug development which will halt sexual transmission of HIV and will also help in vaccine development.
Adler MW. ABC of AIDS, Michael Adler 5th edition. London: ELST; 2001 p 2.
Fauci, Braunwald, Kasper, Hauser, Longo, Jameson editors. Harrison’s principles of Internal Medicine. 17th edition. Mc Graw Hill Medical; 2008;1:1137-1203.
Hu Q, Frank L, Williams V, Santose JJ, Watts. Blockade of Attachment and Fusion Receptors Inhibits HIV-1 Infection of Human Cervical Tissue. J Exp Med. 2004;199:1065-75.
Anathnarayan R, Paniker CKJ. Textbook of Microbiology. 6th edition India: Orient longman private limited. 2001;6774.
Cardona-maya W, The Role of mannose Receptor on HIV-1 Entry into Human Spermatozoa. Amer J Repro Immun. 2006;33:241-45.
Hladik F. Initial Events in Establishing Vaginal Entry and Infection by Human Immunodefiicnecy Virus Type-1. Immunity. 2007;26(2):257-70.
Macedonia SE, Lau R, Patterson S, Pinching AJ, Knight SC. Dendritic cell infection Depletion and dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. Immunology. 1990;71(1): 38-45.
Kalter DC, Gendelman HE, Meltzer MS. Infection of human epidermal Langerhans’s cells by HIV. AIDS. 1990;4:266-7.
Fanibunda S, Velhal E. CD4 independent binding of HIV gp120 to Mannose Receptor on Human Spermatozoa. J Acqurd Immun Def Syn.2008;48:389-97.
Jennes W, Sawadogo S, Koblavi-Deme S, Vuylsteke B, Maurice C, Cellular Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- protective factors: a comparison of HIV- exposed seronegative female sex wprkers and female blood donors in Abidjan, Cote d’ lvoire. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(2):206-14.
Sandra M. HIV-1 specific mucosal and cellular immunity in HIV-seronegative partners of HIV-seropositive individuals. Nature Medic. 1997;3: 1250-7.
Schenal M, Lo Caputo s, Fasano F, Saresella M, Pierotti P, Villa ML, et al. Distinct patterns of HIV-specific memory T lymphocytes in HIV-1 specific HIV-1 specific immunity in HIV-exposed unifected individuals and in HIV- infected patients AIDS. 2005;19(7):653-61.
Lo Caputo S, Trabattoni D, Vichi F, Piconi S, Lopalco L, Villa ML, et al. Mucosal and systemic HIV-1 specific immunity in HIV-1 exposed but uninfected heterosexual men. AIDS. 2003;17(4): 531-9.
Kaul R, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Rostron T, et al. HIV-1 specific CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1 prostitutes in Nairobi. J Immunol. 2000;164(3):1602-11.