Pattern of dysglycemia among Nigerian adult patients with vitiligo: a 10-year retrospective study


  • Collins Amadi Department of Chemical Pathology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Ehimen P. Odum Department of Chemical Pathology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Age, Dysglycemia, Nigeria, Sex, Vitiligo


Background: The prevalence of dysglycemia among adult patients with vitiligo is higher than the general population. However, data is scarce in our region regarding this hypothesis. This study was to define the pattern of dysglycemia in adult Nigerian patients with vitiligo.

Methods: The study was conducted retrospectively among vitiligo patients who visited the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2016. The laboratory characteristics of this patients were evaluated. Data collected irrespective of vitiligo variant were age, sex, and fasting plasma glucose concentrations.  Shapiro-Wilk test, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and two-sample t-test were used for analysis. The level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There were a total of 160 vitiligo patients consisting of 55 (34.4%) males and 105 (65.6%) females. The overall patients mean age was  35±1.9 years (range 19 -61 years). The mean fasting plasma glucose concentration was 5.3±1.1mmol/l.  Impaired fasting plasma glucose was detected in 41(26.6%) subjects with female dominance (female 61.0% versus male 39.0%).  Diabetes mellitus was documented in 6 (3.8%) subjects with no sex difference (female 50% versus male 50%).

Conclusions: Dysglycemia is frequent in vitiligo patients. Screening for dysglycemia should be incorporated into the management protocol of patients with vitiligo.


Onunu AN, Kubeyinje EP. Vitiligo in the Nigerian African: a study of 351 patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42(10):800-2.

Steiner D, Villas RT, Bedin V, Steiner T, Moraes MB. Vitiligo. An Bras Dermatol. 2004;79(3):335-51.

Sehgal VN, Srivastava G. Vitiligo: compendium of clinic-epidemiological features. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73(3):149-56.

Robert P. Ueber die Vitiligo. Dermatologica. 1941;84:317-9.

Numes DH, Esser LMH. Vitiligo epidemiologic profile and association with thyroid disease. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(2):241-8.

Kovacs SO. Vitiligo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38 (5):647-66.

Garg S, Mahajan V, Mehta KS, Gauhan PS, Gupta M, Yadav RS, et al. Vitiligo and associated disorders including autoimmune diseases: A prospective study of 200 Indian patients. Pigment Int. 2015;2(2):91-6.

Huggins RH, Janusz CA, Schwartz RA. Vitiligo: A sign of systemic disease. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2006;72(1):68-71.

Zetting G, Tanew A, Fisher G, Mayr W, Dudczak R, Weissel M. Autoimmune disease in Vitiligo: do anti-nuclear antibodies decrease thyroid volume? Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;131(2):347-54.

Gopal KV, Rao GR, Kumar YH. Increased prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and diabetes Mellitus in Indian vitiligo patients: A case-control study. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2014;5(4):546-60.

Akkhami- AM, Ghadiri AA, Ebrahimzaden-Ardakani M, Zaji N. Prevalence of vitiligo among type 2 diabetic patients in an Iranian population. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53(8):956-8.

Mubki T, Alissa A, Muleka S, Abargawi S, Youssef M, Aljasser M. Association of vitiligo anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, diabetes mellitus, and thyroid dysfunctions in Saudi Arab patients: A case-control study. J Dermatol Surg. 2017;21(2):72-6.

Philipose RP, Krishan S, Srikant S. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders in patients with vitiligo: A clinical study. Int J Health Sci Res. 2015;5(8):541-4.

Shahzad S, Taheri AR, Javidi Z, Dorgaleleh A, Tabibians S, Bamedi T, et al. Association between vitiligo and diabetes mellitus: a case control study. Iran J Dermatol. 2014;17(1):22-6.

Martis J, Bhat R, Nandakishove B, Shetty JN. A clinical study of vitiligo. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2002;68(2):92-3.

Raveendra L, Hemavathi RH, Rajgopal S. A study of vitiligo in type 2 diabetic patients. Indian J Dermatol. 2017;62(2):168-70.

Oasade OA. Why vitiligo in diabetes? Egypt Dermatol Online J. 2005;1(2):2-8.

Ejike CECC, Uka NK, Nwachukwu SO. Diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult Nigerians: prevalence, and correlations of blood glucose concentrations with measures of obesity. Afr J Biochem Res. 2015;9(30):55-60.

Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB. Progression from newly acquired impaired fasting glucose to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(2):228-8.

Birlea SA, Gowan K, Fain PR, Spritz RA. Genome-wide association study of generalized vitiligo in an isolated European founder population identifies SMOC2, in close proximity to 1DDM8. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130(3):798-803.

Sprit RA. The genetics of generalized vitiligo and associated autoimmune disease. Pigment Cell Res. 2007;20(4):271-8.






Original Research Articles