Clinical profile of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction
Keywords:Clinical profile, Myocardial infarction, ST elevation myocardial infarction, Risk factor
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death globally. Cardiovascular diseases have emerged as a major health burden in developing countries. Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined by the demonstration of myocardial cell necrosis due to significant and sustained ischaemia. Author attempted to study the risk factors and clinical profile of patients with MI admitted in Cardiology Department of tertiary care center, Chitwan, Nepal.
Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was conducted in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMS-TH), Chitwan, Nepal, from January 2016 to November 2017. Demographic features, cardiovascular risk factors, clinical presentation, Electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, regions of infarction and rhythm disturbances were studied and documented.
Results: A total of 132 patients diagnosed with MI were studied. Most of the patients (90.15%) had ST-elevation MI (STEMI). The patients were predominantly male (87%). The majority of patients lied in the age group of 61-70 yrs (29.54%). The most common presenting symptom was chest pain (86.36%) followed by shortness of breath (42.42%) and vomiting (12.87%). Tobacco smoking/chewing (62.87%) was the major risk factor followed by hypertension (43.18%) and diabetes (34.09%). Majority of infarction occurred on anterior wall (52.94%). Most of the patients (90.90%) had normal sinus rhythm on ECG. On arrival to emergency department eight (6.06%) patients had cardiogenic shock and only one had congestive cardiac failure.
Conclusions: STEMI was most common type of MI presenting to CMS-TH. Most of the patients were male and the most common risk factor contributing to MI was cigarette smoking. Most of the patients arrived more than 24 hours after onset of symptom.
World Health Organization. Fact sheet: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). 2017. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/ Accessed 12 November 2017.
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